PLANNING AND CONTROLLING AS TOOLS FOR INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY
(A CASE STUDY OF NLNF) NATURAL LIQUID NEUTRALIZING GAS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of Study
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Scope of the Study
1.5 Research Question
1.6 Research Hypothesis
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 Limitation of the Study
1.9 Definition of Terms
2.0 Historical Background of the Organization
2.1 An Overview of the Literature
2.2 Planning Defined
2.3 Principles of Effective Planning
2.4 List of Question for Planning
2.5 The Elements of Planning
2.6 Forecasting, Decision Making and Planning
2.7 Basic Types of Plans
2.8 Management by Objective (MBO)
2.9 Problems of Control
2.10 Standard as the Basic of Control
2.11 Supervision of Performance
2.12 The Relationship Between Planning and Control
2.13 The Relationship Between Planning and Control to Productivity
2.14 Factors of Management
3.0 Discussion, Recommendation, Conclusion
3.1 Discussion of Result/Finding
3.3 Implication of Research Finding
3.5 Suggestions for Further Research
The research project is a very crucial study for the JUHEL (Nig) Ltd. The study was not wasted by the necessity to establish the extent of the planning and controls tool for increased productivity.
To solve the research problems both primary and secondary data were collected the research instruments used in collected the data were questionnaires and personal observations. The respondents comprised of the workers of the company.
In organizing the presenting data collected table and percentage were used. The various hypotheses were tested.
Data analysis and interpretation gave the following finds;
1. That the responsibilities do not absolutely appreciate the organization structure.
2. That the management was not focusing on the effort of workers or employees whose work is being directed and this affects the level of productivity based on findings, the research recommends that;
(a) Appropriate organization planning which covers a number of related matters ought to be practice these includes;
(i) The relationship between division, departments section (and then managers) with the same business. Establishing the span of control of each manager.
(ii) Establishing the “span of control”
(iii) Determine the degree of centralization which is apply to the business.
(b) The firm should focus on the efforts of workers whose work is being directed.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Every organization either public or private will desire to continuously have increased productivity In its production. This need always arises when resources have been committed in line with demand for growth or success. It ought to be agreed that activity that follows the utilization of resources in an organization will help to determine the level of success of result or success in the capacity of utilize the existing resources to meet the over expanding demands can be described as productivity, beside, this productivity is accepted to measure how well resources are brought together in organizations and utilized for accomplishing a sets of results.
In designing an environment for the effective performance that leads to increased productivity of individuals working together in groups the most essential task is to see that purposes and objectives, and methods of attaining them are clearly understood. If group effort is to be effective, people must know what they are expected to accomplished. This is the function of planning.
Planning is a constituent process of scientific management that attempts to achieve maximum operational efficiency by predetermine methods and procedures expressed in plans and followed by the stage of inducing the operations to conform to the plans. It optimum efficiency accelerates increased productivity with the technique of control.
It obvious that before a control technique can be use or a system devised controls and it must be on plans and the clearer, more complete, and more integrated plans are the more effective controls can be. It is as simple as this; there is no way that manager can determine whether their organization unit is accomplishing what is desired and expected unless they first know what is expected.
Controls are the reverse side to coin of planning. First, managers plan, then plans become the standards by which desired actions are measured. This simple truth means several things in practice. One is that all meaningful control techniques. Another is that it is fruitless to try to design control without first taking into account plans and how well they are made.
The desire for increased productivity in an organization is affected where the major pre-requisite for the implementation of planning and control is not given attention. Many failures in planning and control have been caused by a lack of understanding of the fundamentals.
There fundamental purpose are several by planning before performance. The first of these concerns policy, for which the plans must prescribe the detailed application. Besides, since the efforts of all will be harmonized by workings to plans have a common origin a second purpose, that of the co-ordination of strength will be the third purpose of planning lies in the focusing of the efforts of everyone whose planned work is being directed. Since the purpose of control is to measure activities and takes action to ensure that plan are being accomplished, we must also know where in an enterprise the responsibility for deviating from plans and taking action to make correction lies. Control of activities operates through people. But we cannot know here the responsibility of deviation and needed action is unless organizational responsibility is clears and definite. Therefore control can come into effect only when plan have been adopted and instructions issued to all affected by the plans to take appropriate action.
Again, as in the case of plans the clearer, more complete and more integrated organization structure, is the more effective control action can lead to improve productivity.
The merits of planning and control under a complete and well integrated structure are inexhaustible. Little wonder, most big organizations with the understanding of effectively plan and control for improved productivity. How far does the management of JUHEL (Nig) Ltd Enugu, believes in planning and control? On the part of the productivity of the company, how effectively has it improved.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The need for organization desiring to increase it productivity, hence to have more complete and an integrated organization structure. Most writers in management keep emphasizing this need but most organizations especially in the developing countries are either not aware its relevance or think it is a waste of scarce economic resources.
Most organizations including government parastals do not seem to have clearer, more complete and well integrated structure where basic principle must be complied within all applications of control to ensure that there is no clash of orders or confusion within the undertaking. But what seems to happen is that managers can find themselves in knowing that something is going wrong in their company or department and not knowing exactly where the responsibility for the trouble lies. If costs are too high a promised contract is late, or inventory is beyond desired limits, but managers do not know where the responsibility for the deviation lies, those incharge of an operation are powerless to do anything about the situation such organization ought to have limited opportunity for increased productivity as the producers of planning and controls in filled with clash of orders or confusion within the understanding.
It is for this reason that researcher has decided to carry out an evaluation study on the effectiveness of planning and control in JUHEL (Nig) Ltd. Enugu.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study includes the following;
(a) To determine whether JUHEL (Nig) Ltd Enugu embarks on planning and control.
(b) To determine its effectiveness in the organization
(c) To find out whether there is complete and clearer organization structure in the company.
(d) To determine how integrated the structure of the organization is.
(e) To determine the effect of the structure of the organization is.
(f) To determine the effect of the structure on planning and control in line with its productivity.
(g) To recommend as to how to make planning and control more effective and efficient.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work will focus on planning and control of JUHEL (Nig) Ltd. Enugu with a view to improved its productivity.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. How does planning and control increase the productivity of JUHEL (Nig) Ltd. Enugu ?
2. How far does the management of JUHEL (Nig) Ltd. Enugu believe in planning and control?
3. Has it reduced the cost of services?
4. Has it increased the productivity of JUHEL (Nig) Ltd. Enugu?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho: The operation of planning and control does not increase productivity.
Ho: Welfare and satisfaction of worker in operation of planning does not increase productivity.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Organizations, both in the public and private sectors, have not fully realized the importance of effective planning and control. This research work is therefore timely as it seeks to emphasis the importance of planning and control of organization with JUHEL (Nig) Ltd. Enugu, Enugu State as a case study.
Many researchers have been carried out in the area of planning alone with control being ignored in the sense that complete, clearer and well integrated organization structure as the fundamental problem has not be addressed. This is why the researcher deemed it necessary to being the twin concept of planning and control as a tool for increased productivity. This work will therefore be invaluable to organizations (both profit and non profit) which are future-oriented and with long term survival as their major objective.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
PLANNING: It is service activity in which experts in the work being planned select the techniques and procedures necessary for optimum utilization of resources to fulfill the aims and objectives of the enterprises.
CONTROL: The regulation work activities in accordance with predetermined plans so as to ensure the accomplishment of organization objectives.
PRODUCTIVITY: production, performance, result are components of a productivity effort, but they are not equivalent terms. Productivity covers almost all spares of activity where with a given input, and output is expected.
ORGANIZATION STRICTURE: It is the breakdown of management responsibility into appropriate sections and the determine of the relationship between the sections.
POLICY: It is a pattern of direction for the guidance of those who carry responsibility for the management of the activities of the enterprises.
CENTRAL STATISTICAL OFFICE: It is where factual data are complied and processed for use in planning.
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