COMMUNICATION AS A MAJOR TOOL IN DIRECTING FUNCTION OF MANAGEMENT

(A CASE STUDY OF NIPOST ORGANIZATION, ENUGU)

ABSTRACT

            The purpose of this research project is to reveal communication as a major tool in directing Functions of management, both primary and secondary data were used to elicit information from the sample studied the primary source of data were response from questionnaire and personal interview, while secondary source were form text-books on communication and periodicals.

            One hundred questionnaires were distributed to the sample of the staff and management of the organization. There were ninety percent returned and 10% unreturned.

            The study revealed that there is no effective channel of communication in the organization.

            The investigation reviled that also that the organization takes grapevine information very important.

   The researcher finally made a far researching recommendation which includes that there should be an effective channel of communication in the organization.

    The researcher also recommends that the junior staff should be given chance to communicate face to face to discuss their problems.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE:     INTRODUCTION

1.1              General Background to the Subject Matter

1.2              Problems Associated with the Subject Matter

1.3              Problems that the Study will be Concerned with

1.4              The importance of Studying the Area

1.5              Definition of Important Terms

1.6              Reference

CHAPTER TWO:    LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1              The origin of the Subject Matter

2.2              Schools of Thought Within the Subject Area

2.3              The School of Thought Relevant to the Problem of Study

2.4              Different Methods of Studying the Problem

2.5              Summary

2.6              References

CHAPTER THREE:            CONCLUSION

3.1              Data Presentation

3.2              Analysis of the Data

3.3              Recommendation

3.4              Conclusions

3.5              References.

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Communication is basic to the existence and survival of any human organization.

            As a fundamental tool in management, it has been a primary concern to administrators in all-human institutions, be it business, military, government, education, hospital, research and so on. Whenever there are two or more persons working towards the achievement of set objectives or goals, success will naturally not to achieve if the importance of communication is neglected.

Danyer, (1972) defined management as “being concerned with the direction and control of an enterprises and involves planning and directing of the work of others”. These managerial function cannot be successfully carried out in the absence of a good communication network.

            Peter 1955 (pg.112) in his book entitled “The practice of management” pointed out that “ a manager can only make his objective effective by communicating then to the subordinates whose performances required to attain then. He further emphasized that not do decisions have to be made, but they have to be communicated to whom it is meant to know what is expected of then.

            In his own contribution, Chese (1984:p.78) postulated that “there is an increasing need for effective employee communication system if the firm is to achieve success?  He explained that” management is realizing that in order to maintain output for the firm, communication channels in the firm must be modern, effective and as humanly personal as possible”

            The impact of communication in business organization and or on human being is very enorious. Communication consists for more than telling people things or what to do until a manager learns to understand and becomes skilled in the basic process of transmitting and receiving information he cannot possibly lead or motivate the work in the manner required to set the work done more effectively.

            We often communicate unknowingly as others observe our actions and facial experience and drive inferences or conclusions from. “Expert have shown that the percentage of time allocated to communicate is very high ranging from 75% of our warring hours. Five percent of this time is spent in writing 10% increasing, 35% in talking are 50% in listening.

            It is therefore not surprising to note that poor communication breeds, spreads and is always the root of organisational problems.

            Decision-making is possible without communication effectiveness of communication in any organization breed’s motivation and high moral on employees with its attendant increase in productivity and profitability which is always the major objective of many business.

            From all indications, communication is of paramount important in dealing with the human factors throughout his stay in the organization from recruitments to retirement.

            Communication integrates the management function and relates it to both internal and external environment. Every system must have interaction and cohesiveness between its sub- system if the to the complex is to accomplish its objectives.

 

1.1              THE GENERAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:

The Nigeria Postal Services (NIPOST), Started as the postal branch of the posts and Telecommunications Department in 1851, when it was established in Lagos on an arm of the British Post Office.

The primary aim was to organize- well co- ordinate correspondent and remittance between the British Armed forces and consulted in Lagos, Benin Delta areas, the home government and people in Britain. Internal aim conveyance of mails started in 1931 when the Royal Air force conveyed mails by air from Lagos to Port Harcourt and Warri  “Nigeria was admitted into the universal postal union (UPU) on the 10th July 1961.

“The posts and Telecommunication Department was later split into two in 1985. This gave birth to Nigeria Telecommunication limited (NITEL)”,

Nipost became a statutory department in the ministry of communications the same year within this period the department was largely a social service oriented organization. Its services were labour- intensive but with low revenue yielding capacity.  These it was dependent on government for it’s funding in order meet up with its current and capital expenditure.

Today, Nipost has adopted a new structure and in therefore a fully autonomous corporation. Its policy control has been completely served or removed from the parent ministry of communication. The a acronyms  “Nipost” now means “Nigerian Postal service” as against “Nigerian Postal Service Department” that it was before the autonomous status.

This development was eshunicated by decree No. 41 of 1992. The social service implication of the organization to barely m5%.

PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY OF NIPOST

    “The primary responsibility of Nipost is established by the decree No. 18 of 1989” were to deal with postal professional and policy issues as:-

a)                  Exploration of additional sources for postal revenue

b)                  Review of postal tariff.

c)                  Strategy to promote development and maintenance of efficient, co-ordinates and economic postal services.

d)                 World –wide provision of highly dependable postal link between and among manager’s nations of the universal postal union without discrimination to race.

e)                  Provision of efficient counter and remittance services in the state of postage stamps, sales of money and postal orders, sales of international postal pay, coupon and post office registered envelope.

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURAL OF NIPOST

The Nigerian postal services is headed by post master- General of the federation who is assisted by five Deputy post master General as follows:-

1)           DPMG  =  Corporate Services

2)           DPMG  =  Operations Planning

3)           DPMG  =  Finance and Investment

4)           DPMG  =  Engineering and Technical Services

5)           DPMG  =  Territorial Administration.

There are also units Heads called the senior Assistant Postmaster General (SAPMG), who also report direct to the postmaster General. These are as follows:-

1)                  SAPMG    =    In-charge of internal Audit.

2)                  SAPMG  =  In-charge of investigation and  security

3)                  SAPMG  =   In-charge of commercial

       units/public Relation.

4)                  SAPMG   =  In-charge of Legal unit

5)                  SAPMG   =  In-charge of Data processing

6)                  SAPMG   =  In-charge of corporate Planning.

We equally have some Assistant Postmaster- General in-charge within the organization structure.

At the territorial level, the chief Executive is known by the functional title of area Postal manager (APM). He is assisted by Branch/unit Heads. The Branch/unit Heads includes-Domestic operation, personnel Administration, Investigation and securing, Accounts, Internal Audit, Stores, Project Execution/workshop, Commercial unit/Public Relations etc.

            At the Districts level, the functional heads are know as the Head Postmasters, report direct to the Area Postal Manager of their various territories.

1.2              PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER

This research work will try to find answers to following questions:

a)         How effective is communication channels in NIPOST organization?

b)         Do subordinates atimes fail to communicate to managers/supervisors due to communication gap?

c)         How are Managerial decision communicate to workers in NIPOST organization.

d)         Do you think that communication should be regarded as a major tool in directing function of management?

f)                   Do you think that the organizational structure of NIPOST makes it possible for effective internal communication?

1.3              PROBLEMS THAT THE STUDY WILL BE CONCERNED WITH

There is increasing evidence today that many of the problems associated with management inefficiency are more closely related to ineffective communication. This research work will try to highlight some of the communication problem encountered in NIPOST organization.

A manager has a specific tool with which to perform his duties, that tool is information, and this information may be lacking in specific areas. These areas where information is lacking may be of greater importance to management. This is a very big information for a particular decision making may be communicated to the manager from a numerous sources that he is now faced with the problem of which are to accept and which are to drop. If the manager happens to pick the wrong information, it will have an adverse effect on the organisational objective on goal. This research work will also try to answer the question. “How does the management of NIPOST organization use communication as a major tool in directing function of management?

1.4              THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDDING THE AREA

This study is important in the sense that it will look at one important aspect of management tool in directing function, especially I a big organization like NIPOST which has branches all over the Federation.

The management tool referred to here is communication.      It is hope that through this study, some good contribution would be made to the existing stock of knowledge in this field.

This study will also act as a guide to policy makers in restructuring of the communication system in their organization barriers and possible ways to solving them.

1.5              DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS

The terms used in this research work is defined to suit the concepts adopted in this study.

COMMUNICATION:   The transfer of information from one person to another or the importing of common idea or understanding to another person.

COMMUNICATION CHANNEL:  This is any way by which news, ideas, instructions etc. may travel in an organization.

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION:  Occurs when the person receiving the message, receives it in the sense that the person giving the message expects him or her to get it.

FEED- BACK: Responses received from communication the response can be positive or negative, oral or written and through sign or gestures.

ORGANIZATION CHART:    A device used to portray or represent the organization structure in a diagrammatic form.

GRAPE VINE OR ROMOURS:  Means by which news gets about in an organization through unofficial source.

MANAGER:  Person who controls a business or an organization or one who organizes other people in an organization to achieve organizational goal.

SUBORDINATE:  Lower in rank, a person that is ranked lower, one who work under another.

FORMAL ORGANIZATION: Organized body of persons or system with rules, customs and conventions for doing things.

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