In the course of this research work, productivity is taken to mean the relationship between the quantity of good produced to the quantity of resources used. A more fruitful way to understand productivity is to consider it a process. Thus Brech (1975) was of the view that productivity can be loosely thought of as the continuing improvement of the firms management performance in the use of resources and through the operations it is conducting.

            However, for the purpose of this research work, the researcher highlights those factors responsible for low productivity among the Nigerian workers. The researcher tends to focus on those means that will be applied to get workers committed to their work using effective motivational tools to enhance an increase in the productivity level of the Nigerian workers while focusing on the public sectors organization, N.E.P.A. Enugu zonal office as the study scope. If the recommendation, findings are implemented, it will go a long way in helping the employers of labour especially N.E.P.A. to motivate, encourage her employee for greater productivity.

            Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources, the analysis of the data was carried out using the statistical method, it was under this study that the researcher brought out a population sizes that he used to determine the basis for the information gather and analyzed. The test of the data gathered.

            The findings of the researcher observed by the help of questionnaires and interviews embarked upon as regards factors responsible for this low productivity are as follows:

i.                    The job evaluation system is being carried out in lazy and unfair manner.

ii.                  The motivational tools and incentives were not properly provided to workers which in the right scenes, it tends to be motivating workers into putting their best t work but the reverse is the case.

iii.                These is the fear of job security among workers for fee of being left redundant or sacked.

iv.                The workers experienced a shortage of their working facilities that ought to have helped them in their productivity.

v.                  Working system in the country is not satisfactorily accepted by the workers due to their act that their purchasing power is not guaranteed.

With this findings the researcher then proffered recommendations that would eliminate these problems or at least reduce it to the bearest minimum.

This recommendations tends to be:

i.                    Proper job evaluation so as to remove any biased feelings of evaluation processes.

ii.                  Provision of working facilities to aid workers in carrying out their jobs.

iii.                Provision of incentives and fringe benefit that has the ability to motivate workers.

iv.                Training and development needs of workers.

Maintenance of discipline and work ethics.




1.1              Background of the Study                                          

1.2              Statement of the Problem                                          

1.3              Objective of the Study                                              

1.4              Signification of the Study                             

1.5              Scope, Limitation and Delimitation               

1.6              Research Questions/hypothesis                                  

1.7              Definition of Terms                                       



2.1              Overview of Labour Productivity                 

2.2              Attributable Factors to Productivity  

2.3              Research Method Used                                 



3.1              Data Presentation and Analysis                     

3.2              Analysis of the Data                                                  

3.3              Recommendations                                                     






            Productivity in public organization as well as in the private sector is simply the relationship between inputs and outputs. Inputs are basically resources such as labour, materials and capital. Outputs are such accomplishments as work done, products distributed or services rendered. Thus in Nigeria, workers have been experiencing certain problem that has been hindering their productivity level which has adversely affected Gross Domestic Product.

            The government is trying to see that productivity maintains an impressive level created the ministry of labour, employment and productivity, National productivity center etc. In order to help alleviate the problems of Nigerian worker.

            In view of these, one may genuinely ask, why is the Nigerian worker inherently characterized by low productivity inspite of all government efforts to improve productivity?

            The answer to this disturbing question is difficult but vital and will be discussed extensively as we proceed into the study. Briefly we take a short historical background of N.E.P.A which is a service organization in the public sector and the researcher decides to chose it in over viewing the general Nigerian worker.


NEPA: The history of our present day NEPA would be incomplete if the old public work department of government which in 1876 installed the first generating set in Lagos is not mentioned.

            In 1895, the preliminary investigation and planning were carried out by the P.W.D (Public Works Department) in Lagos at a cost of N3,206,000 and it was under the government of southern Nigeria in 1896 that the sum of N12,000 was allocated for the former location of NEPA Headquarter in Lagos. Mr. T. poke was the first Chief Electrical Engineer of this establishment which was known as the Lagos Electricity supply.

            In 1924, the system which hitherto operates the 1-phase 3-wire so cycle was replaced with the 3-phase 4-wire 50 cycle which is still being maintained till today.

            Consequently, 1929, a meter section was established to deal with the metering of various consumers. In the establishment of these bodies there was dublicity of function by the federal government. Both agencies were involved in generating and transmitting electricity one sold to the other which then sells to the public. The federal government decided to merge the two bodies this was done during the budget speech of the then, head of Military government Major General Yakubu Gowon in 1972, he declared that in the interest of affording the nation a well coordinating system of electricity supply, the ECN and the NDA should merge into a body to be known as National Electric Power Authority (NEPA). Thus by Decree No. 24 of 1972, NEPA was established.



            Decree No. 24 of 1972 which established NEPA proclaimed that “it shall be the duty of the authority to develop and maintain an efficient, co-ordinate and economical system of electricity supply for all parts of the Federation or as the authority may direct”. With this, the organization was established to render services which is in line with aiding management in achieving its objectives and fulfilling its policies. But there has been certain factors that has posed as problems hindering the provision of adequate services to consumers of electricity supply.

            This problems can be sub-divided into two major headings, internal and external factors:

            The internal factors are those problems that are contributed by the staff of the organization within their working environment and also those spelt out to staff by management, they are as follows:

i.                    Lack of incentives schemes and fringe benefits.

ii.                  Environmental factors.              

iii.                Inadequate manpower utilization and training

iv.                Lack of good management practices

v.                  Inadequate motivation

vi.                Policies in the organization concerning disciplinary measures, promotion etc.

These are faced with workers in the organization depriving them of the ability to meet up to their customers expectation in service rendering. We now look into the other problems that are externally forge against the workers effective supply of services. They are:-

i.                    Low gas pressure and low water level in the running of the thermal and hydro power stations respectively.

ii.                  Indiscriminate bush burning

iii.                Illegal connections

iv.                Theft and vandalization of NEPA equipment by unscrupulous persons.

v.                  Road construction workers damaging NEPA  underground cables.

vi.                Careless and reckless motorists running into NEPA installations like transformers. Sub-stations and even electric poles.

vii.              Inadequate fund for the rehabilitation of old and worn out equipments, or the procurement of new ones when the need arises.

These were spelt out as what is affecting workers in their bid to carry out their work effectively, thereby weighing down productivity, thereby weighing down productivity increase in their organization.


            Studies has been carried out in Nigeria regrettably, not much has been done in the way of solving the problems facing Nigerian worker which has been detrimental on increased productivity that will in no small way contribute to the development of a developing Nation likes Nigeria.

            Therefore this research is aimed at treating those problems that are particularly facing workers in public organization ranging from the junior staff to management staff.

            In order to foster increased productivity among workers in Nigeria with the help of the study carried out in the National Electric Power Authority as a guide, will in no small way enable us to find solutions to the following problems stated below.


            The objective of this study is to discover the following:

1.                  What ways to be applied to ensure workers commitment to work in order to foster increased productivity.

2.                  To investigate how effective the motivational methods, if any has played any role in the bid to increase productivity of workers.

3.                  What should be done to increase the overall interest of workers to enhance productivity.

4.                  To closely look at those factors responsible for low productivity of workers.

5.                  To review the current operating standards of management and suggest if possible any other standard that will be of great help in the task of stepping up productivity.


            The result of this research will help to adjust these problems that militates against productivity of workers in the public sector of the economy and thus help to improve the image of the course.

            The research will provide solutions to low productivity problem to aid increase productivity level of workers which is considered the highest objective of managers of organization. The research will as well provide for management the needed sound background in theory, practice for implementing, organizing and  controlling of the affairs of the public sector.

            It also will help NEPA management in dealing with its productivity problems and serve as research material (secondary data) to future works that could be related to the study.


            To carry out this research effectively a number of related questions concerning the attitude of workers to improve their working attitudes were prepared. The following question were being used to acquire the necessary information’s on the study.

1.                  What are those factors responsible for workers low productivity?

2.                  What will encourage a worker to work diligently and put his best at work?

3.                  What type of working environment helps to facilitate a worker when carrying out his work?

4.                  Does management style of leadership affects workers productivity?

5.                  What additional incentives motivate a worker to increase his productivity level?


            The following hypothesis has been adduced as possible responses to the questions poised earlier.

Hypothesis 1 – Ho:                 Lack of instrumentality in the Nigerian working system is not responsible for low productivity in NEPA.

Hypothesis II – HI:                 Lack of instrumentality in the Nigerian working system is responsible for low productivity in NEPA.

Ho:            Motivated (satisfied) workers would not do their work to meet the organizational objectives.

Hi:             Motivated (satisfied) workers will do their work to meet the organizational objectives.


            In the course of going through this work some key words and phrases which are very vital, has been explained below for better understanding.

PRODUCTIVITY:                 is the ratio between outputs and all resources used in production.

LOW PRODUCTIVITY: Inadequate productivity or mainly low level of production.

SUPPLY:                                The provision of electricity current.

POWER:                                 The generated electricity for domestic use.


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