This study was undertaken to identify and evaluate the waste reduction management strategies in Glaxo Simithline (GSK) Nigeria Plc, Lagos.      In generating total need to achieve the objective of the study, the researcher consulted many textbook, journals, periodicals and paper work. These were renewed and deductions and additions were made appropriately. The study was also conducted by using primary and secondary sources of data collection as well as percentage and made in the data analysis and interpretation.  Based on the analysis of data some findings include that good waste reduction management strategies exist and these include but not limited to processes improvement strategies emphasis on efficiency maintenance of plants/equipment and employing qualified trained personnel.  Therefore, this work suggest that the company should intensify, efforts towards achieving zero waste through establishment of secondary application for all waster generated.


          CHAPTER ONE

1.0    Introduction                                               

1.1        Background of the study                                      

1.2        Statement of the problem                    

1.3        Objective of the study                         

1.4        Research Question                                              

1.5        Research Hypothesis                                   

1.6        Significance of the Study                     

1.7        Scope of the Study                                             

1.8        Limitation of the study                                 

1.9        Definition of terms                                      



2.1    Literature of Related Review                        

2.2    Waste Prevention Models                             

2.3    Waste Disposal Techniques                                

2.4    Waste minimization strategies                       

2.5    Case studies on Waste Minimization                       

2.6    Basel convention on Waste Management        

2.7    Overview of facility- Glaxo smithline Nigeria Plc       

2.8    Existing Waste Management strategies by (GSK)     



        Research Methodology

3.0    Introduction                                                       

3.1    Source of Data                                           

3.2    Study Population                                        

3.3    Sampling size Determination                        

3.4    Sampling Procedure                                    

3.5    Data Collection Instrument                     

3.6    Method of Data Analysis                                      

3.7    Decision Rule                                               

3.8    Validity and Reliability of Instrument              



4.0    Data Presentation and Analysis             

4.1    Presentation and Analysis of Data                 

4.2    Hypothesis Testing                                              

4.3    Summary of Result                                                                      CHAPTER FIVE

Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1    Summary of Findings                          

5.2    Conclusion                                         

5.3    Recommendation                                       






Glaxo Smithkline (GSK) Nigeria Plc, is a corporate organization, which was incorporated in Nigeria as a public limited liability company in 1971. Currently it has tow factories located in Agbara and Ilupeju, GS is quoted on the Nigeria stock market and is positioned to be the leading pharmaceutical company in Nigeria GS line of product include

A.    Analgesics; Panadol, Panadol Extra, Cotenol, Phensix and Phensicplus.

B.   Nutritional drinks: Lucozads, lucozade boest etc

C.   Multivitamin tonic: Extravite

D.  Laxatives: Andrews liver salt.

E.   Oral care: Macleans

The analgesics, multivitamin tonic and laxatives are manufactured at the Ilupeju factory, while the Agbara orsal care is under contract manufacture with UACP and PP as an embodiment of it’s valves GS integrates environment and safety into the very fabric of the business to benefit her various customers and to achieve:

-      Compliance with all applicable laws, regulations legislation and GS environment and safety  standards

-      A work culture that promotes a safe work place characterized by absence of occupation injures and illnesses.

-      Safe and environmentally responsible development and manufacture of her products.      

-      Protection of the environment through the optimal utilization of resources and prevention of any adverse impact on the environment and the global community.

-      Worldwide leadership in the industry with a superior environment and safety vision: the foundation of a environment and safety programmes is set out in policy statement, which commits  GS to

-      Improve efficiency and reduce waste

-      Maximize the efficient use of energy.

-      Design packaging to minimize resources uses and maximize recycling capabilities.

-      Operate responsibility and cooperatively with the community (Hagan, 2000). 

There also, exist standards, covering emissions to air and water, waste disposal and energy  usage in GSK Nigeria Plc generally, there exist following requirements:

-      Identification and classification of waste

-      Waste generation rates

-      Segregation and storage of waste

-      Identification and selection of waste recycling, recovery storage and disposal options

-      Transportation of waste

-      Waste disposal contractor management

-      Documentation and record keeping

-      Management of waste produced by contractors working for GSk

All manufacturing process are usually accomplained with by waste generation. In GSK sources of waste include the various raw and packaging materials, chemical and chemical products, intermediate and finished products,  metal scraps, sand, spent grease oil, gaseous emissions/fumes petrochemical and domestic wastes.

        These  waste are commonly categorized into three forms viz solid waste, liquid/effluent waste, and sem-solid (paste form) waste.

These forms of waste could be hazardous or non-hazardous. The hazardous waste include:

a)   Waste solvents – eg tablets/powers/liquid/or pastes destroyed by soaking and diluting with water, manufacturing floor washings, mopped up spill etc

-      All waste laboratory chemicals-resulting from analysis expired chemical etc

-      Use of asbestos and metals (equipment scrape/spare parts)           

The non-hazardous waste include but not limited in packaging waste paper, plastic, food.

        Waste management including strategies has been a global  concern and its effect on environment is currently top on international agenda. To this effect GSK budget and spends an average of N2.5 million on waste management annually.


Waste is an inevitable problem, and penalty is paid by industrialized and industrializing nations. Effort have been geared towards  the treatment, disposal and management of waste with the driving objective of improving current health and environmental impacts. 

A most promising step in solving  various waste problems is the prevention of waste  at it’s source.

Pharmaceutical industries have been identified as one of the major culprist in the issue of waste mismanagement. This is considering the kind of hazardous and non-hazardous substances produced from their activities and which have also led to serious problems to both the industry and society at large, like economic financial loss, pollution/epidemic and even death. It is important to access how these problems arise.  


Various waste reduction strategies have been adapted by different communities/organizations in the economy but now effective these strategies have been over the years shall be major focus of this study. In this, with this, the study objectives of this work will include:

1)   To ascertain the extent to which firms plan and disposal of their wastes.

2)   To critically appraise the methods of waste disposal in Galxo Smithklin Nigeria Plc, Lagos.    

3)   To highlight the likely consequences of poor waste management in GSK in particular, and the nation at large.

4)   To ascertain the organizational variable that will make for effective waste management.

5)   To highlight the potential  benefits of effective waste management in GSK.

6)   To add to the existing knowledge in the field so as to assist in further research.


1)   Do firms actively plan and engage in waste disposal and management?

2)   Is poor waste management a major cause of firms – mortality in the pharmaceutical industry?

3)   Is waste reduction part of the social responsibility of the company?

4)   Are the waste management strategies Glaxo Smithkline pharmaceutical industry effective?

5)   What other ways could the company use for effective management of waste in the industry?


H0:    Industries do not deliberately plan for waste disposal and management.

H1:    Adequate was disposal and management is a major planning decision in the Pharmaceutical industry.

H0:    There is no significant relationship between firms morality in the pharmaceutical industry and their waste management programs.

H0:    Companies social responsibilities, to not include the issue of waste disposal and management.

HA:    Companies social responsibilities include effective waste management attract positive relationship with the firm and public. 


This research work has been carried out to serve as a source material for the management of waste in the waste management industry in particular and the economy as a whole.

Indepth study has done on area like:

-      Identifying ways of optimizing existing processes

-      Minimizing emissions and therefore pollution control and abatement costs

-      Company’s image and goodwill, etc

The practical exposure and operations of firms in the industry, vis-à-vis the enormous problems of waste management which this exercise has given to the researcher is quite appreciated and of future benefit.

Finally, there is no doubt that other researchers  in this field and Glaxo Smithkline Plc in particular, will find this work interesting, useful and quite challenging.


For the purpose of this study, the scope shall be limited to the waste generation, treatment and disposal with special interest on waste reduction strategies adopted within Glaxo Smithline Nigeria Plc (Ojota and its factories) over the past decade during the period under study (early 90’s – 2003). It is possible that some required data may not have been properly documented but efforts should be made to historically generate such data, which will be subjected to valid statistically engineered historical data is subject to verification.


1.   Waste: Discarded substance that can no longer be used, and which has no apparent economic volume.

2.   Normal commercial cycle: Refers to the interest in the management of waste materials when discarded.

3.   Waste inevarchy: Pyramid of waste treatment options that offer the best available option in a descending order.  

4.   Protimity principle: Waste disposal to sent to the facility nearest to the site of production.


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