THE PROBLEMS FACING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF BANKS IN RURAL AREAS (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF ENUGU STATE)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Background of the study ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Statement of problem †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Objectives of the study ††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Scope of the study†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Statement of hypothesis †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Significance of the study ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Definition of terms †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Review of relation literature† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Literature review †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Origin of Nigeria banking system †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Banks defined †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Types of banks ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Differences between central banks and other banks
Differences between commercial banks and merchant banks
Commercial banks and rural banking development ††
Financial institutions and rural development
Rural banking scheme and relationship Between peoples bank, community, family support towards rural development
Research methodology †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Sources of data †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Population of study ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Sample size determinant †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Research instrument used †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Origin of data †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Tool of statistical analysis †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Testing of hypothesis† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Summary of findings, recommendation and conclusions
Summary of finding ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Recommendation †††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Appendix I ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
Appendix II ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
††††††††††† CHAPTER ONE
††††††††††† Banking transactions in some selected local government in Enugu such as Udi, Ezeagu Udoji is not new to us as we have been practicing this system for over thirty years after independence. However it is on this background that two systems of operations were adopted for effectiveness and efficiency of the product management in various banks. In the past we use to have an orthodox banking process whereby the banker relaxes on this sit waiting for customers to bring business. This type of banker is looked at as somebody with rigid ideas about bankable projects and which in turn retards the smooth flow of banking operations. Another type of banking process adopted as conventional is the unorthodox system whereby the banker is evolved in looking for customers.
††††††††††† Because they want to maximize profit, the banks employ all possible marketing promotional strategies in order to survive, hence competitors has come into play and thereby creating innovation and business acumen. Knight Lester B. (1970: 7) status of banking marketing Washington D. C. American Bankers Association states that banks primarily especially commercial banks are engage in business of collection, payment and depository functions as well as credit management.
††††††††††† According to Kotler (1980: 4) stated that the survival of any bank depends on the manner it functions and therefore it has to depend on the market place for its profitability and environments of the economy which it serves. It is worthy to mention that the ability of any business to serve and retain its customers depends mostly on the quality and the effectiveness of the product management it offers. The quality of services provided by the any organisation is better judged in terms of itís ability to bestow the customerís with the desired satisfaction. In this regard characteristics such as reliability, standardization, availability and other desired attributes associated with service combine to determine the effectiveness of the product management in the marketing of banks services in the three local government areas.
††††††††††† Martins (1979: 12) confirmed that the image commercial bank has is important because it determines the customers patronage of bank.
††††††††††† According to advertisers watchdog (1983: 7) awareness creation strategy has been limited to advertisement which does no more than informing the customers about the services they offer and the address of their location. All the claims about efficient courteous and speedy services are false and advertising in banking industries can only become a reality when services the bankers render is equated to match the claims they make I the advertisement. According to Azikiwe (1943: 16) expressed his annoyance and disappointment over the treatment meted on him from a bank staff in Lagos. The story is still the same every where even after the days of the white men. Loans are still granted guarding to customers and if granted, it is alleged that the managers demand personal cuts, long queues, man-know-man etc.
††††††††††† Banking habit among the people is still very low in sipte of huge profits recorded by banks annually, according to Engu and Warsaw (1979: 10) indicated that there is a ray of hope and government rural banking programme if well planned, coordinated and pursued vigorously will help to increase the banking habit of our populace, increase efficiency and effectiveness of it product managementĒ. There w ill also be an increase competition among the banks for customers. As at the end of March 1985, there were thirty two commercial banks, operating Udi, Ezeagu and Udoji witu a total of one thousand one hundred and fifty nine (1,159) brand network. By share volume, the commercial banks are the most dominant and by December 1980, they had a total capitalization of N16,340.50 millions.
††††††††††† The competition among banks would center on non-price lines since the Central Bank controls the interest, the aggregate among to be lent to some categories of customers, the sector that more funds should be decided to what should be accepted as security for the loans and especially the type of business that banks should go into. How banks attracts serve and retain customers is left for to decide. All these put together including deposits, loans and advances make for effective product management.
††††††††††† The problems to be addressed in this study are: the customers have equally criticized the charges of the bank and varsity of services offered by this bank.
††††††††††† The importance of the industrials to the economy of the country need met to be over Ė emphasis but yet they are found writing in optimum satisfaction of itís numerous customers. In view of the importance of this industry in the economy, the researchers seek to evaluate the effectiveness of the product management in this industry for increased performance.
††††††††††† The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of product management as adopted by 1st Bank in the marketing of banking services in Udi, Ezeagu and Udoji Local Government Area. At the end of this research, it is hoped that this exercise will assist to provide the management with relevant information as an aid towards effective marketing of† its services.
††††††††††† This research work seek to:
1) To determine the length and quality of service being afforded by first bank limited to its customers.
2) To determine whether the attitude of the bank staff affects the customers patronage of the bank
3) To find out whether writing time and armchair posture adopted by the banks affects the quality of services they render to customers.†††† ††††
4) To demonstrate the importance of applying marketing, principles and practices and determine if the concept of man-know-man affect the bank loan and advances.
5) To find out if there is any effect of non-availability first banking services in the rural areas and effect of proximately on customers patronage.
6) To obtain any information which many are relevant to the management in the planning and executives of promotional decision for effectiveness and efficiency.†††
††††††††††† This study is limited to first bank in 9th Mile corner Ngwo and also customers of the bank within Udi, Ezeagu, Udoji metropolis.
1)†††††††† Ho: †††† The quality of services offered by the first bank do not lead to customer patronage.
Hi: ††††† The quality of services offered by the first bank lead to customer patronage.
2)†††††††† Ho: †††† The First bank changes does not lead to increase customerís
††††††††††† Hi: ††††† The First bank changes does to increase customerís patronage.
3)†††††††† Ho: †††† The effectiveness product management of the first bank does
not leads to its availability.
††††††††††† Hi: ††††† The effectiveness product management of the first bank leads to
4)†††††††† Ho: †††† The promotional activities of the first bank impact negatively
on customerís awareness of he services.
††††††††††† Hi: ††††† The promotional activities of the first bank impact positively†
on customerís awareness of he services.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
††††††††††† The importance of this study is that after looking into the effectiveness product management of the First bank in marketing their services, one will be a position to see whether the quality of services rendered by First bank has influence on the customers. It will help us to find out whether the attitude of the bank staff affects the customerís patronage. This study will also help us to find out whether armchair alleviate whether promotional problems the bank may have been encountering in marketing of their services.†††† †
††††††††††† Finally, it is hoped that the findings of this study will be of immense help to the banking industries as a whole and first bank Ltd in particular in that it will attempt to highlight areas of deficiency with a view to helping management improving its services and our recommendation if implemented would help the bank to improve itís operations and profit figures.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Promotion: Promotion has been defined by American Marketing Association as a strategy for stimulating marketing demand and gaining competitive edge by informing, persuading and services and identified audience.††
Strategy: Strategy refers to the planning and adjustment of efforts to attain a specific objectives. Strategy also encompassed act of conducting a campaign and maneuvering things.
Marketing: According to Kotler, marketing is human activity directed as satisfying needs and want through exchange process.††††††† ††
Services: These are separated indefinable activities, which provide wants satisfaction when marketed to consumers/industrial users and which are not necessary tied to the sale of a product or another services. J. M. Rathmell, Journal of Marketing, October 1966, 33.†††
Banking: The banking ordinances of 1952 defined banking business as the business of receiving from the public on current account, money which is to be payable on demand by cheques and of making advances to the customer?
Banker: A banker is a dealer in debt. It is also any body or body persons whether in cooperated or not that carry on business of banking.
Customer: There is no statutory definition of customer. The relationship arrives when a person or group of persons, society, firm customer, which the bank normally accepts customer also means one accustomed to frequent a certain place of business or a buyer.††
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