THE EFFECT OF GLOBALIZATION ON SERVICE INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA
This research was carried out to primarily find out the effect of Globalization on service industry. It focuses on the globalization through trade agreement and market integration.
Concept and process of globalization and information technology and global interdependence and dynamic of globalization.
The related literature was reviecived only in major areas such as important and growth of service industry the achieving global synergies, Trends no globalization of the world economy and implications for Nigeria.
In the Process of the research valuable informal on will be obtained by the use of questionnaire administer to the customers of MTB also personal interview will be utilized in the process of gathering data.
Data was gathered with the use of the questionnaire and analyzed with some statistics tool like Chi – square (x2) the simple percentage and mean method. The investigation revealed that globalization brought the increase in productivity and profit level, it also enable service marketing to render their job effective and efficiently which brought customers satisfaction through been competition. The research also revealed that no nation or body can develop in isolation.
The study went on to discovered that Nigeria services industries have not yet exploited much in the globalization releases due to certain factors like economic instability, mis-management, Naria devaluating etc. Although the service industries are improving.
In the light of this, therefore the research recommend that service industry should try to exploit opportunities and compete more with the rest of the globe.
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Research Questions
1.5 Scope of the study
1.6 Significant of the study
1.7 Limitation of the study
2.1 Over view of project topic
2.2 History and business
2.3 The operating environment
2.4 Trends in globalization of the world economy and implication for Nigeria.
3.1 Data collection procedure
3.2 Sources of data
3.4 Direct/personal interview
3.5 Sample population
3.6 Method of data analysis
3.7 Reliability and validity of the instruments
5.1 Summary of findings,
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Globalization means the whole world is becoming a global village, the world are coming together to be one in unity, things are happening generally people don’t produce to satisfy the market people around them, but they produce for the whole market. What is happening at Saudi- Arabia, America, Europe etc. is happening in Nigeria, Ghana and parts of the whole world it is globalization. Globalization is a new world order that emphasis global perspective of the whole universe in further words that world market is tended toward a universal standard.
The world economy has undergone radical change during the past two decades, geographical and cultural distances have shrunk with advent of jet planes, fax machines, global computer and telephone, look ups, world Television satellite, broad casts and other technical advances. This has allowed companies to greatly expand their geographical market coverage purchasing and manufacturing. The result is a vastly more complex marketing environment for both companies and customers. Today almost every company, large or small is touched in some way by global competition. From the neighbourhood florist that buys its flowers from Mexican Nurseries, to the small New –York clothing retailer that sources its merchandized competing in its home markets with giant Japanese rivals to the large American consumer goods producer introduce new products into emerging markets abroad.
Companies in various industries are also developing using a global assembly line. In addition is sourcing their components suppliers and goods from abroad, many U.S companies are trying to sell their services abroad. But they are recognizing that to do this well they cannot do it along so they are forming strategic alliances with competitors who serve as suppliers or distributors, technological partners or joint ventures partners all of this means that we are seeing and will continue to see some surprising alliances between international competitors e.g Ford and Nissan successfully designed a mini – van together and Ford has also had a successful strategic alliance with Mazda for the past 20years.
General electric and SNECMA a French company have been making jet engines together, since 1971 coca-cola and Schweppes run a large soft drink during bottling plant together that has brought both companies, tremendous cost saving. Toshiba supplier line transmitter to JVC Television.
What is internet: the internet is a collection o thousands of computer, networks of varying sizes millions of computer more than 30 million users who share a compatible means for interacting with one mother to exchange digital data. A system that commecks computer system located throughout the world that willing to share resources. Internet has eructed a co-operative society that forms a virtual community starching from end of global to other.
There are factors that necessitate globalization as follows.
International spread of technology sizes of investment require, reduction of trade barriers and all environmental demographically, psychographic and behavioural factors.
Globalization through trade agreement and market integration the success of trading blocks in the world economy depend on members having similar economic structures, being geographically close to each other experiencing a political commitment and solving evidence of trade compatibility (Eieleke) 1992, Schott 1999). The first exertion refers to the need to accommodate the redistribution of trade flows employment and income which would necessarily arise from the integration of the economics.
Globalization through (GATT) the general agreement of tariffs and trade round of discussion completed and signed on 15 December 1993 in Geneva and was launched in Uruguay seaside resource of puntodec to see in September 1986, the Uruguay round of trade talks was the most ambitious attempt to date involving more than 100 centuries liberalizing trade and standardizing trade rules in a textiles. The aim was to remove as many invisible trade barriers as possible to encourage closeness of the global the most striking trend in business today is the growing globalization of markets world wide for goods and services. This is true for everything from airlines to automobiles, banking to burgers; clothing to computer’s detergent to disappears, electronics to elevators, software, toothpaste to tacos. Corporations whether of U.S Japanese, European, or other National origin are drawing an increasing proportion of their sales from international markets are the 100 Largest U.S. Multination derive 39 percent of their sales from operations overseas. Company such as Exxon IBM, colgate palm olive CPC internationals and coca-coca etc draw more than 60 percent of their sales from operations overseas, international markets are critical for companies such as unilever the anylor- dutch conglomerate, Philips, the electronics giant and nestle the Swiss food Mammoth who have relatively small domestic markets. Vans motivation empires are emerging whose sales volume is often greater than G.N.P of many countries.
Yet globalization is not confined to a globalization is not confined to a large multination. A new breed of “miniaction” is emerging opening fallones research labs and sales units around the world, these are bypically mid – size manufacturing companies with sales of N 200 million to N 1 billion, which target special rich markets world wide in areas such as precision instruction medical equipment or computer peripherals. Talking advantage of the operating up of markets and new technologies they are able to serve customers firm a limited number of manufacturing bases and keep a clean cooperate profile to complete more effectively in world market, Medtronic, a.u.s.s.s” manufacturer of pace makers has opened plants in Japan and Europe for research and manufacturing to serves these markets and tap into new technology in micro – matching and miniaturization. Japanses and European companies have entered world markets and constitute a major challenge in many industries traditionally dominated by U.S.A firms. Many companies from the newly industrializing and developing economics are also beginning to spreads their wings and to assume increasing important in field such as electronics textiles ship building and steel. Furthermore the trend toward globalization is occurring not only down stream in end markets for consumers or industrial goods but also upstream in market for raw- materials technology and other resources in many industries, global searching is on the increase resulting in the development of complex logistical system designed to take advantage of differential Labour, production and raw- material cost in different countries as well as the increased efficiently in international transportation and communication networks.
Thomson consumer electronics of France for example, makes components in Malagsia and Indonesia that go into TV sets, assembled in its highly automated plant in Singapore. Indonesia has now become a favourite place for making expensive owning sticks numerous, U.S, Japanes automobile companies are setting up operations in Mexico. Ford is investing $ 750 million in a plant in Chihuahua to manufacture two empires for North America. Mission is spending $ 1 billion on a new assembly plant at Aquas caleentes to make sentras, some of which are to be re-exported to Japan. Such developments imply that all companies need to adopt a global perspective to their strategic marketing planning, irrespectively of their interest in international markets need to identify the most attractive opportunities world wide to determine their global strategic or key competitive advantage and investment strategy relative to these markets. Even companies not considering international operations need to develop strategy with and eye to international operations need to develop strategy with an eye to international development and potential entry of foreign competition into the domestic markets.
1.2 THE CONCEPT OF GLOBALIZATION
Globalization is a process of integrating economic decision-making such as the strong and dominant globally. A new world order is being created with clear international and result to the global market with the consumption, investing and saving process all across the world, it is a process of creating a global market place in which increasingly all nations are forced to participate key elements of this process are the interconnection of sovereign nations through trade and capital flows, harmonization of the economic rules that govern relationships between these sovereign fraction creating structures to support and facilitate dependence and inter connection and creation of a global market place. Yet another perspective of globalization goes beyond the economic sphere. The opening which the information technology has created impact on almost all aspect of human life (culture religion and values are all affected as people all over the world are exposed more than ever before to systems and the enthronement of western style common culture. The fear of cultural imperialism under scores of point that globalization could also be seen as a process of harmonization of different cultures and believers. The more immediate and concrete impact of the technological advancement in communications has been the creation of global market place in which countries are increasingly being forced to participate, countries operating in separate sovereign autonomous environments take decisions which have bearing on others with the creation of a common global market place where autonomous units are increasingly succeed in globalization can also be defined as the process of shifting autonomous economics into the global market the systematic integration of autonomous economics into global system of production. This process is creating new strains in the global trading environment and placing new emphasis on international cooperation, which calls for adjustment by all participating countries.
On the more positive side the process is providing the means for large expansion of world trade and increase national economic growth for countries in the position to benefits.
Some elements of hype can be said to be associated with concept globalization. There are the misconceptions that this process would eventually result in a boarders world. The world of separate nation scabe is said to ending if the process of globalization is allowed to run its global course. These are basically misconceptions. The fact that the process aims at increasing inter border relationships does not automatically means are elimination of the existence of nation states. Globalization is a process of expanding economic co-operation amongst states and this does not necessarily imply future breakdown of borders. Seen from uneconomic preparative it does not even require harmonization on integration of social political systems. It is simply a process of intensified and broadened inter dependence among nations. The process simply created a global market places which, with the developing in communications technology can be accused by virtually any one from any location. Internal law of nations would still have to operate regulating how individuals and groups would be affected. The process opens up a world of opportunities for business. It links them to markets which were hitherto unknown to them and provides prospects for growth. Hype extravagant or intensive promotion of product etc promote with hype (origin unknown).
1.3 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND GLOBALIZATION
Information technology is playing a vital role in the current process of globalization. Indeed, the current globalization process is highly information based. It is therefore important to single out the role of information technology in the globalization process. Information technology combines progress in electronics, computing and telecommunications to come up with a highly dynamic process of storing, processing, transmitting and presentation of information. Information technology is witnessing a phenomenal growth which has facilitated new response mechanism. Countries are now in a better position to respond speedily to change in demand patterns and changes in international comparative advantages. For those countries with the domestic capacity more efficient production processes have introduced in a bid to maintain a competitive edge within the changing global environment. Due to scientific and technological break through in transistors semi conductors and integrated circuits or chip” Micro-electronic is having a profound influence on virtually every aspect of economy. The result has been a drastic fall in costs and well as drastic fall in costs and well as dramatically improved technical performance both within the electronics industry and outside it, it is promoting the internationalization of production and markets which is central to the globalization process, today information system developing are constantly being applied to wide areas of the economy. They are responsible for increase productivity, quality and efficiency of a number of sectors.
The emergence and rapid expansion of the information super high way has brought to the door of people all over the world information which has become a vital factor in daily decision making demote areas around the world are today covered by the communication range through technological advances in cyber space, in the computer and telecommunications field. This has serious implications for how business is done world-wide. Individuals and organisations are now realizing that they do not have to be physical present in any particulars location in order to transact business.
The promotion of the fact that technically, managers can reach any part of the world from any given location.
The manager can reach any part of world in just a little time the integration of functions confers on information technology its ability to interpret preciously separate production functions. Information technology offers the opportunity for completely new ways of working through systems integration. Business however, involves more than information. The actual money of gods and services require more than information technology can provide information technology therefore, combines with other process to define the scope of globalization. The pace of change in information technology is accurate rating the already observable growth in the interdependence of international relations. These development covers not just economics, but also political and cultural fields
1.4 GLOBAL INTERDEPENDENCE, DYNAMICS AND CHALLENGES.
Globalization on the basic of global interdependence.
The current situation is that countries are now more interdepence than over in the history of man. The structure of the world economy as such that resources recovery around the world has become initial for its growth and sustained global welfare. Structure of production and consumption are now structure of production and consumption are more dictated by global forces. No one country can claim that it can grow in isolation of the rest of the world. The world is witnessing a significant level of convergence in development strategies as capitalism gains acceptance in countries which up to recently had adopted central planning. The globalization of capital by its successful penetration into parts of the world hitherto considered hostile territories has created a new structure for the world economy. The most glaring evidence of this current effort at securing massive flow of capital into Russia by World Bank, IMF and European Countries. The central planning has been abandoned in the former society union and in Eastern Europe, making them fertile ground for capitalist expansion, in the face of policy failures throughout Latin America, South Asia and the middle East, countries are reversing policies of import substitution designed to prevent the need for trade, most country now accept the need to increase competitiveness in the world market as a means of sustaining growth. The pressure around the world as for increase trade and opening up of previously closed economics. The emerging global structure of production requires free markets, private capital based system. This development is most apparent in the area of trade policies since the mid – 1980s efforts at encouraging trade liberalization around the world have been yielding results. A large number of developing countries have reported unilateral liberalization, measures to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Many have joined GATT, and more are in the process of joining its successor the world trade organization. Thus while in the past only the developed countries at different stages of development are presently actively involved in the efforts at trade liberalization, although the process is still being easily dominated by industrial countries it has gained the interest of most countries. The process has been given a further push by the completion of the uruguary round and with the enlargement of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Europeans Union.
DYNAMICS OF GLOBALIZATION
We have observed the changing structure of the world economy which has facilitated the growing trend of globalization. Next we should examine the dynamics of the system as manifested in the globalization is an organization now is whether globalization process. The question now is whether globalization is an organic part of a natural process of world development or whether it is manifestation of the dominance of an ideological position in a apparent domination of the world economics system by the western capitalist economics, the logic of capital expansion leads to the creation of a global market in which western capital plays a pivotal role. Western capital seeking more profitable outlets needs the ression of the world. Ironically the first step towards the present trend of globalization led by the developed countries of the world started with regionalization. The intention of regionalization was to provide a common market to the exclusion of others. It was to protect the interest of domestic capital with in the region and confer on it advantages that would make it strong to compute around the world. Capital needs a secure environment to thrive the requires stability and harmonization of laws. Common markets however, seem to have raced their limits for Western capitals so increasingly the focus has shifted to regional blocks collectively doing business with the outside world. Initially this process was seen as contradicting to the tree trade doctrine preached by the western world the in selves. But it has now become clear that it is strategy for breaking into a group regional blocks often tend to encourage common Law which enable business once it establishes in one country to gain access to all others in the black. The face today is that it help pushing for greater trade liberalization which in most eases means opening up of new market in developing countries for western capital and goods, new regional blocks are emerging. This is a deliberate strategy by the industrialization world to maintain their hegemony over the new world order. This process of globalization has fundamental implications for the developing countries who on off the one hand are being asked to open while on the other final the world market place impossible to penetrate.
Globalization is a process of intensified interdependence, which makes it impossible for any one country to isolate itself and expect to develop. The argue is that globalization makes it possible for all nation to benefit from interdependence entails amplified risk and uncertainty. One major challenge to all countries, but particularly developing countries within the context is how to manage this risk and handle the uncertainty.
THE CHALLENGES OF GLOBALIZATION
We are all faced with age-old concern. Are rich countries getting richer while the poor getting poorer. And what is the role international integration in allowing the poorer countries to catch-up.
Globalization is a process of intensified interdependence, which makes it impossible for any one country isolate itself and expect to develop the argument is that globalization make it possible that all nations to benefit form interdependence interdendence is maintained in the increasing economic linkage among countries, through trade and financial flows it was however been argue of that interdendence entails amplified risk and uncertainty.
One major challenge to all countries but particularly developing countries within this context is how to mange this risk and handle the uncertainty. We might conclude that companies are doomed whether they stay at home or go abroad. But companies selling in global industries have no choice but to internationalize their operations. A global industries have is one in which the strategy position of competitors in given geographic or national markets are affected by their overall global operating in more than one country. Against research and development, production marketing and financial advantages in its costs and reputation that are not available to be purely domestic competitors. The global company sees the world as one market. It minimize the important of National Boundaries and raises capital, source material and components and manufacturer and components, and its good wherever if it can do the best job for example, Fords “World truck” sport a lab made on Europe and Brazil and imported to the united state for sale. Thus global firms gain advantage by planning, operating and coordinating their activities on a world wide basis.
Because firms around the world are globalization at a rapid rate domestic firms in global industries must act quickly before the window close on them. This does not means that small and medium size firms must operate can practice global nichemarship. But the world is becoming smaller, and every company operating in a global industry whether large or small must access and establish its place in world markets.
1.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Marketing operates within a dynamic global environment. Severe decades calls upon marketers to think freshly about their marketing objectives and practices firms, banks inclusive are in era of complex marketing, the period of bankers to bank rest on their armchairs waiting for customers had gone. A company must be up to date technology and dynamic to environment factors. Rapid changes can quickly made yesterday’s winning strategies out of date e.g general motors, sears, RCA, each failed to understand it’s changing market place.
Today’s companies are wrestling with increased global competition environmental decline, economic, political and social problems etc.
However, this study is embarked upon an order to find a lasting solution to certain global problems such as:
a. How can bank render an effective and efficient banking services.
b. To know the effect of globalization has on the service industry.
c. Whether it cause increase in customers patronage.
d. How banks are trying to build customer loyalty.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This project will address the under listed issues.
a. What are the effects of globalization on service industry?
b. Is the service sector efficient and accurate with the adoption of modern equipment?
c. What impact does the adoption of globalization have on profitability and customers satisfaction?
d. How effective is cash flow around the global?
Simply states in a testable from the relationship between independent and dependent variables, it is a pointed to know how the variable could be measured. It is stated in statement for e.g motivation increase productivity.
Hypothesis to be tested are:-
H0 : that globalization has no effect on service industry.
Hi : that globalization lead to efficiency in service
Industry – positive.
In hypothesis we allow the system to give it own result without any prejudice.
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research is bases on the effect on globalization on service industry. How it affects their efficiency accuracy and transfer of skills.
1.9 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The relevance that this study will have is that firms must become customers oriented and markets driven in all that they do. It is not enough to be product or technology driven too many firms still design their producers without customer input only to find them rejected in the market place.
Moreso, the whole world are witnessing the era of unity and harmony (main economically) around the global. Further more, the study will put more light on globalization. It will enlighten those firms that are not up-to-date in modern technology also to contribute to the body of knowledge on marketing in the general global economic activities. Thus it can be used to serve as a frame work and reference point for other researchers.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Various terms have been used to refer to marketing activities that take place in more than one country. In this work, there are some work that are technically used. Therefore, the researcher wants to give the meaning so that all will benefit from the study.
Marketing: As a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others.
Service:- A service is any activity or benefit that one party can offer to another that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything.
Information:- The act of passing messages to one another.
Technology:- The systematic application of knowledge to practical tasks in industry.
Globalization: Involving the whole world global “warfare” comprehensive total.
International Marketing: Refers to marketing activities in one or more countries outside of the domestic bases of operations.
Transnational and global management of marketing: Management attempts to ordinate and integrate operations across National boundaries so as to achieve potential synergies on a global scale.
GLOBAL NICHE STRATEGIES
While global segmentation strategies to leverage competitive advantages across country markets. Global niche players look for opportunities in multiple National markets that are not covered by other major competitors. Although global niche strategies do not appear to be very common as local nationally focused companies often fill niches such a strategy can provide an effective means for a smaller player to complete in a market dominated by two or three competitor work wide. Cadbury Schweppes, for example has pursued a global niche strategy in the soft drink, market in order to avoid entering in to direct competition with coca-cola and pepsi –cola, which dominate the cola market world wide.
1. Global marketing strategy by Susan P. Douglas C. Samuel Craig.
2. The new Webster’s = Dictionary of English Language international Edition.
3. Philip Kotler Six edition
4. Global marketing strategy by Susan P. Dougla Samuel Craig C. Mc Graw-Hill International Edition marketing and advertising series pg 3.
5. Class – note.
6. C.B.N Guide line 2000- Edition.
1. GLOBAL SQUEEZE: One World is the World today?
Global squeeze beings with the promise that a new force called globalization is sweeping across the land scope of the industrial countries, threatening the economic base of their Civilizations. Although the international of the world economy has progresses for over a century.
The new force is responsible for stagnation of real wages the widerings of wage and income equality, the spelitting of the middle class and growing job insecurity.
SOURCE: The Nigeria Banker vision 2010.
1. GLOBA PHOBIA: On the other hand, represent a smaller group that tries to inject a note of realism, in the form of common sense economic analysis into the debate.
2. THE DILEMMA OF THE GLOBAL: Global can be seen as “The modern metamorphosis of free trade global important criteria is corporate planning which employs a world wide prospective and in partially allocates resources such as management. Other personnel company specific technology, business expertise and funds on a global basis, and foreign direct investment either in manufacturing or service industries in more than two countries- source- international marketing by Stanly Ruliwada.
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