A study was carried out on crisis management which originated with the large scale industrial and environment disaster in the 1980ís. Crisis management is the process by which an organization deals with a major event that threatens to harm to the organization, its stakeholders, or the general public.

††††††† According to Research, it was shown that there were three elements common to most definitions of crisis.†

1.   A threat to the organization

2.   The element of surprise,

3.   A short decision time.† but the venette argued that crisis was a process of transportation where the old system can no longer be maintained.

The study focused primarily on the intergroup types of organizational crises among the staff of an organization.† The study covered the management and workersí union crises and the strategies in managing crises between this two groups with particular references to pepsi and Japanís reactors and BP spill.

††††††† The finding in the study showed that crises was inescapable or unavoidable part of the learning process directed towards securing adjustment of expectation to economic realities and also to achieve social and economic desirable improvement. Non payment of wages and salary as at when due was also a major source of conflict or crises in this organization.

††††††† The research topic crisis management in industrial environment will help management, entrepreneurs to known various preventive crises approach, be confident and make policies that can reduce these crises which hinder the attainment of business mission.


Chapter One

-      Introduction ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

-      Objectives and Aim of Crisis Management ††††† †††††††

Chapter Two

Types of Crisis ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

-      Crisis Leadership †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

-      Models and Theories Associated with Crisis ††††

-      Examples of Unsuccessful Crisis Management

Chapter Three

-      Conclusion ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

-      Recommendations††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††




Crisis Management Consists of:

Method used to respond to both the reality and perception of crisis.

Establishing matrics to define what scenarios constitute a crisis and should consequently trigger the necessary response mechanisms.

Communication that occurs within the response phase of emergency management scenarios.

††††††† Crisis management is occasional referred to as incident management, although several industry specialist, such as peter power argue that the term crisis management is more accurate.

††††††† A crisis mindset requires the ability to think of the worst case scenarios while simultaneously suggesting numerous solutions.† Trial and error is an accepted discipline solutions. Trials and error is an accepted discipline, as the first lien of defense might not work. It is necessary to maintain a list of contingency plans and to be always on alert.† Organization and individuals should always be prepared with a rapid response plan to emergencies which would require analysis, drills and exercise.

††††††† The credibility and reputation of organization is heavily influenced by the perception of their responses during crisis situation. There must be open and consistent communication throughout the hierarchy to contribute to a successful crisis communication process.

††††††† Crisis is also a facet of risk management although it is probably untrue to say that crisis management represent a failure of risk management since it will never be possible to totally mitigate the chance of catastrophe occurring.

Objectives And Aim Of Crisis Management

Beyond contingency planning towards a model of crisis management.

This reviews the central contributions to the crisis management liter atume, addresses its various dimension and details the major phases within which crises occur.† The paper seeks to develop a schametic model for crises and conclude by advocating that management needs to acknowledge the limitations of its contingency planning in order to allow for more effective decision making.† The model suggest that there are three phases within a crisis.† The precipitation phase in which the potential for a crisis is created, the operational phase of the crisis, and the post-crisis phase.† The resultant model provides a frame work for the subsequent analysis of crisis event.

The political Dynamics of the New Environment

The 1980ís have witnessed a rejuvenation of environment politics within all advanced industrial societies. Some analysis suggest that this merely reflects the underlying business cycles as the problems associated with growth rather than recession come to dominate the political agenda.

††††††† However, there is considerable evidence to suggest that environmentalism is likely to remain a permanent feature of the politics of advance industrial societies in the 1990s.† This is because the new environmentalism is nurtured by the decline of traditional class based politics and the emergence of new political cleavages within western societies.

††††††† Moreover, the deeping of processes of social change in industrial societies, combined with a sensitivity of governments to the economic and welfare consequences of environment crises, and the globalization of environmental issues have transformed the political dynamics of environmentalism.† This transformation will present major challenges to business and industry in the 1990ís which will demand genuine responses.

††††††† Accident prevention and risk communication in Environment protection† a sociopsychological perspectives.

††††††† The preventive and management of environmentally damaging accidents has become an important responsibility of industry and government. One of the ways to accidents is to encourage risk communication.† Risk communication should take place not only between the firm and the public with which it deals but also among the firmís employees.† This discussion examines the technical and subjective aspects of various risk analysis and communication approaches, emphasizing the need to pay much greater attention to the sociophychological dimension of risk behavior in industrial workplaces.† It offers a number of practical guidelines of successful accident prevention and risk management.


Using our service is LEGAL and IS NOT prohibited by any university/college policies

You are allowed to use the original model papers you will receive in the following ways:

1. As a source for additional understanding of the subject

2. As a source for ideas for your own research (if properly referenced)

3. For PROPER paraphrasing (see your university definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase)

4. Direct citing (if referenced properly)

Thank you so much for your respect to the authors copyright.

For more project materials

Log on to

Or call