This chapter will look at the background of the study, problem statement, purpose of the study, general objectives, specifics objects, research questions, scope of the study, and si~_lificance of the study or justification. 1.1 Background of the study Since the beginning of the 1990s, the number and intensity of mass violent conflicts has decreased worldwide (Human Security Centre 2005). However, this trend does not hold true for sub-Saharan Africa, where most of the world's armed conflicts cunently take place. At the turn of the 21st century, more people were killed in wars in this region than in the rest of the world comb_ined some author's state that "arm1c:d conflict is arguably now the single most impo1iant determinant of poverty in Africa. Yet little is known about how mass violent conflict affi,cts poor households and how poor households cope with conflict. No1ihern Uganda conflict starched it origin from the Uganda's People's Democratic Movement/Army (UPDM/A). This was therefore the first armed opposition to the NRM Government since it came to power in 1986. The leadership of the armed force was drawn from the former Uganda National Liberation Arn1y (UNLA) soldiers . from Pader, Kitgum and Gulu district where it operations were concentrated. A second armed movement was led by Alice Lakwena known as the Holy Spirit Mobile Force (HSMF) and the Lord's Resistance Arn1y (LRA) led by Joseph Kony, followed in succession. The root of the war in Northern Uganda was between the Government of Uganda and the Lord's Resistance Army in Acholi land part of Lango and part of Teso lands which is entwined with the history of conflict in Uganda and the rise to power of the National Resistance Movement/Army(NRM/A). It is upon this background that the government of Uganda in 1996 decided to resettle the rural population approximately one million people of Kitgum, Gulu. Pader and part of Lira and Apac into internally displaced people's camps (!DPs). This arrangement therefore extended east of Soroti when LRA activities spread to the area in June-2003. The Government resettled the people in IDP c1lmps with the aim of providing better safety and security to them. (Justice and Peace News 2004) and the number of people estimated to be living in IDP camps is 1.2 million people which is approximately 70 % (UDN2003). Unfortunately, these IDPs created to provide safety and security to the people turned to be places for drinking, prostitution and all sorts of bad habits like rape, defilement simply because of idleness making the people unable to participate in farming activities and there is also a problem of access to income generating activities because the people have been restricted to operate only within the camp areas due to the situation at hand therefore reducing the level of income of the rural population.