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THE PREVALENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:47
  • Methodology:Scientific
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Science Lab Technology Project Topics & Materials)
THE PREVALENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS
ABSTRACT

The study was to determine the prevalence of M. tuberculosis in Enugu metropolis. The study was done using five areas in Enugu metropolis, Ogui Road, Onu Asata, Obiagu, Agbani Road and Okpara Avenue. Among the five areas used Agbani Road has the highest positive prevalence rate of 11 percept (11%), followed by Obiagu which also has the high positive prevalence rate of (10%), followed by Onu Asata with the prevalence of (5%), and Ogui Road (3%) and Okpara Avenue has the lowest positive prevalence rate of (2%). All these positive prevalence rate were as a result of standard of living and life style of people in these areas. The method used to carryout the study was random selection method, and the diagnostic procedure was by Ziel Nelson staining procedure. Which involves the use of calbo-fusen as a staining dye. The study population with the highest positive prevalence rate are 20 – 30 and 60-65 which may be due to alcoholism, smoking and old age. The area that needs further study is how tuberculosis infect bone (called tuberculosis in the bone).
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
1.0    Introduction                        
1.1    Background of the Study                 
1.2    Statement of the Problem              
1.3    Objective of the Study                   
1.4    Significance of the Study                    
1.5    Limitation                                 
CHAPTER TWO
2.0    Literature Review                      
2.1    Causes of Tuberculosis                   
2.2    Risk Factors of Tuberculosis                  
2.3    Mechanism of Transmission                
2.4    Signs and Effects of M. tuberculosis               
2.5    Pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis              
2.6    Diagnosis of M. tuberculosis                
2.7    Prevention and Control of M. tuberculosis          
2.8    Treatment of M. tuberculosis               
2.9    Epidemiology of M. tuberculosis           
CHAPTER THREE
3.0    Materials and Methods               
3.1    Materials (See Appendix)                    
3.2    Methods                         
3.2.1 Sterilization of Glass Wares        
3.2.2 Collection of Samples                  
3.2.3 Preparation of Sample                    
3.2.4 Staining and Microscopic Examination          
3.2.5 Procedure for Gram Staining               
3.2.6 Immunological Test                       
3.2.7 Use of Turberculin Skin Test                 
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0    Results                               
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0    Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation    
5.1    Discussion                          
5.2    Conclusion                              
5.3    Recommendation                       
    Reference                        
    Appendix                           

LIST OF TABLES
Table I:    Shows the Prevalence of Tuberculosis
Ogui Road (Enugu Metropolis)                26
Table II:    Show the Prevalence of Tuberculosis in
Obiagu (Enugu Metropolis)                27
Table III:    Shows the Prevalence of Tuberculosis in
Onu Asata (Enugu Metropolis)                28
Table IV:    Shows the Prevalence of Tuberculosis in
Okpara Avenue (Enugu Metropolis)            29
Table V:    Shows the Prevalence of Tuberculosis in
Aghani Road (Enugu Metropolis)            30    
CHAPTER ONE
1.0    INTRODUCTION
1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Tuberculosis, or TB (short of tubercle bacillus) is common and in many cases lethal, infections disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Kumar and Abass, 2007). Tuberculosis typically attacks the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air when people who have an active 413 infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit respiratory fluids through the air (Dolin, 2010). Most infections are asymptomatic and latent, but about one in ten latent infections eventually progresses to active disease which, if left untreated, kills more than 50% of those so infected (Gbosh, 2008).
Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem considered as occupational infections disease, always as occurring in healthcare professionals (Jaypee, 2008). TB presents serious consequences when associated to multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains dissemination. The occupational 413 could lead to work absenteeism and a negative professional impact (Richard, 2008). The knowledge about the prevalence of TB among healthcare professional is one of the essential steps for revision of and reinforcement of control and preventive measures, against TB transmission (Schiffina, 2008). Different infection control measures, usually of simultaneous administrative and engineering character, have been implemented in industrialized countries, resulting in reduced nosocomial tuberculosis transmission. However, the effective role of individual infection control measures is difficult to establish. The implementation of such measures could be neither resource – limited national (Lawn, 2011). The classic symptoms of active TB infection are chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweat, and weight loss. Infection of other organs causes a wide range of symptoms. Diagnosis of active TB relies on radiology (commonly chest x-rays), as well as examination or microbiological culture of body fluids (Peter, 2006). Diagnosis of latent TB relies on the tuberculin skin test (454) and or blood test (Dolin, 2010). Treatment is difficult and requires administration of multiple antibiotics over a long period of time. Social contacts are also screened and treated if necessary (Behera, 2010). Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in multiple drug-resistance tuberculosis (MDR-413) infections (Jindal, 2011). Prevention relies on screening programs and vaccination with the tubercle bacillus (almette-Guerin vaccine (Golden, 2005).
One third of the world’s population is thought to have been infected with M. tuberculosis (Golden, 2005), with new infections occuring in about one percent (1%) of the population each year (Kabra, 2006). In 2007, there were an estimated 137 million chronic active cases globally, while in 2010, there were an estimated 8.8 million new cases and 1.5 million associated deaths, mostly occurring in developing countries particularly in Nigeria (Delhi, 2004). The absolute number of tuberculosis cases has been decreasing since 2006, and new cases have decrease since 2002 (Burkitt, 2007). The distribution of tuberculosis is not uniform across the globe, about 80% of the population in many Nigerian and other African countries test positive in tuberculin test, while only 5-10% of United States populations test positive (Gosh, 2008). More people in the developing world contract tuberculosis because of comprised immunity, largely due to high rate of HIV infection and the corresponding development of AIDS (Southwick, 2007).
1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
There has been a high prevalence of tuberculosis in Enugu metropolis, this lead to the study to know the predisposing factors and possible preventive and control measures so as to reduce the high rate of TB occurrence in Enugu metropolis.
1.3    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is to know the causes of high prevalence of TB in Enugu metropolis.
1.4    SIGNIFICANCES OF THE STUDY
(a)    This will help the populace to the causes of TB;
(b)    The predisposing factors, sign and symptoms of TB;
(c)    The antibiotics of choice for the treatment and possible preventive and control measures of TB.
1.5    LIMITATION
This study limits on the prevalence of TB in Enugu metropolis.

THE PREVALENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS

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Details

Type Project
Department Science Lab Technology
Project ID SLT0149
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 47 Pages
Methodology Scientific
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Science Lab Technology
    Project ID SLT0149
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 47 Pages
    Methodology Scientific
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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