1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education worldwide is regarded as the citadel of knowledge, the fountain of intellectualism the most appropriate ground for the incubation of leaders of tomorrow.
According to Ike (1991:1), an education fulfills, one major function it is a knowledge an value provider it stand or fails in its ability or inability to deliver on this criteria.
According to Magna Carta, ‘’The education is an autonomous institution at the heart of societies differently organized because of geographical and historical heritage, it produces, examines, appraises and hands down culture by research and is an enterprise that serves multi-disciplinary purposes. Education are key actors in national development, more so in Africa than in other regions. Their roles in research and this explains why the federal government of Nigeria is acknowledging the education as a fulcrum for national development, set up a commission headed by Chief Gray Longe (1992) to review higher education in Nigeria with particular reference to universities in Nigeria. The commission was given terms of reference among which are;
- Determine the middle and higher level manpower supply and demand of the country and advice in the area of under/over population and under/over utilization of the same.
- To re-examine the development roles of education system in developing countries such as Nigeria
- Investigate the nature, sources and criteria of funding in higher educational institutions. (especially universities) with a view to improving the situation and guaranteeing steady sources of funds for optimal functional of these institutions.
- Review the general condition of staff in higher educational institutions such as salaries, pensions and retirement benefits, housing of the public service and private sector and particularly to stemming the brain drain phenomenon.
- Review the criteria for appointment of administration, including the vice chancellor, provost, rectors, registrars and other principal officers, their terms of office and the process of renewal of their appointments.
The commission held special sessions with a number of eminent personalities and educationist from whose knowledge and experience of the educational system in Nigeria it benefited immensely.
Finally, the commission defined higher education as the type of education in higher educational institutions especially in universities (conventional and specialized) which produce high level and middle level manpower, but no specialized set up by professional bodies.
The commission, however, frowned at the discovery that the following physical conditions are still the trade-marks of the Nigerian Education System.
- Dilapidate workshop equipment in most of the higher institutions
- Inadequate facilities such as libraries, lecture rooms, laboratories and work farms.
The commission was also appalled by the fact that education have not achieved much in terms of the goals and objectives for which were set up, owing to incessant disruption in the academic flow chart caused by strike actions, industrial unrest, students hooliganism, political instability etc.
Based on these discoveries, the commission recommended among others that;
- Universities education is not a means to earn a living. It should also equip the individual to the highest level of his ability wit the intellectual and physical skill which he requires to be an innovative creature and self-reliant member of the society
- The university education as the apex of the system of higher education should play a leadership role in the nation providing people of special qualification and motivation
- The education because of its key role in the overall economy should always encourage and facilitate industrial harmony and provide a conducive atmosphere for learning and attainment of other goals and objectives.
The government on its part accepted these recommendations and thus, commented as follows:
- The government on its own part should render its lawful obligations to the education by providing funds, research grants, the required infrastructure (road, laboratories, electricity, telephone) a conducive learning environment.
- In order to develop closer academic and industrial relationship and also ensure that the programmes of tertiary institutions are relevant to the needs of the industry and the national economy, there should be regular interaction between the institutions, the employers of their products and the national manpower board.
- To encourage industrial harmony in the higher education institutions by passing laws that will preserve the rights of the various interest groups within the education system, especially organized trade unions and employees associated.
This is however; the general picture of the events that surrounds the education system in Nigeria. We shall examine at the appropriate chapters of this work how far these major actors in industrial disputes have discharge their respective obligations in order to reduce the rate of industrial dispute in the Nigeria education system.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Over the last thirty years in Nigeria, the educational system has witnessed an unprecedented industrial disharmony and so many officials assaults that other social institutions.
According to Onuoha (2001), this is so perhaps, because of its strategic place both in the nations hierarchy of priorities and its considered role as a veritable machine for development.
In his own contribution, Nwankwo (2000:37) opined that Nigeria educational institutions, characterized by military intervention interference and a seeming calculated mores to submerge it in the river of irrelevances. He further argued that those in authorities see education system as a burden and as institutions to be exploited and left desolate. Consequent upon this disharmony, non-payment development, our education system he posited, have become aberrations of themselves. The manifestation are in form of cultism, brain drain, under funding by government, erosion of academic freedom, general insecurity, dilapidated structures, non-payment of staff salaries. These are indications that all is not well with the Nigeria education system.
The sources of discontent in our education system are in exhaustive. According to Akpala (1982:56), it has bearing with present economic situation in the country, our political history and inheritances authoritarian attitudes of both government and education. Management towards labour issues, the presence of obsolete labour laws, corruption in all segments of the society, mal administration, class conflict and struggle, struggle for survival etc also in the list of the problems in the inability of the Nigerian education system to actualize the objectives for which they were established, such as a training of high caliber manpower etc. it was on the basis of the above problems that the researcher was motivated to conduct The research work to find out the true position of things in the Nigeria education system and to state the facts as they are without any bias and to proffer some solutions.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study had the following objectives:
- The determination of ways of ensuring industrial in the future
- The determination of the causes of individual disputes
- To find out the consequences, implications of industrial disharmony in the Nigeria education system
- To know the strategies used by
- Nigeria education system
- The government in solving industrial disputes on the Nigerian education system
- To know how industrial dispute could be managed.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research work will enable the researcher to come up with answers to the following research questions namely:
- What are the ways of ensuring industrial harmony in the future
- What are the likely causes of industrial disputes on the Nigerian education system?
- What are the consequences/implications of industrial unrest on the Nigerian education system?
- What are the strategies used by
- Nigerian education system
- The government in settling industrial disputes on the Nigerian education system
- How can industrial disputes be managed?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
A study on industrial relations would not only be beneficial to the state, employers of labour and employees but to the society as a whole. Labour issues have bearing with integrated national planning. It contributes to manpower development and harmonized industrial relations, which promotes rapid economic development. Besides a peaceful industrial atmosphere is required to actualize the noble objectives for which education system were set or established to achieve the research work is significant in a number of ways which includes;
- The study is significant to the state and federal government who will appreciate that the inability to implement the joint decisions reached has been a source of dispute on education system.
- With the introduction of the concept of management in industrial disputes, the research has contributed to the pod of knowledge already available and therefore adding to the existing literature
- The study would also benefit labour union that in the course of this research would understand that even though their demands are imperfection in lien with the economic realities, must consider the learn resources of the state and the position of management before embarking on strike.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is the research boundary. This research focuses on industrial disputes on the Nigeria education system. Emphasis is laid on the management of industrial disputes with a view to identifying the causes, the dimension and socio-economic implications of industrial disputes in our society.
The scope of the study will be limited to some selected institutions in Kogi State. The research work will pay attention to Kogi State University and Federal College of Education, Okene Kogi State.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Hardly would a research study be concluded without constraints. In a country such as ours where bureaucracy in the flow of information and where there is inaccurate data and statistics, there really has to be a problem. Specific instances of constraints related to the data system would include:
- Lack of standardization in data recording and formats
- Low quality data and inadequate recording devices
- Inadequate data collection and handling procedures
- Lack of research skills
- Lack of incentives and motivation
- Budgetary limitations.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Education: Many attempts have been made to give a proper definition education many scholars have abandon the attempt as no single definition can do justice to the word ‘’education’’ many scholars have abandon the attempt as no single definition can do justice to the word ‘’education’’ because the word education is a concept or an ideals. Education is a is a concept or an ideals. Education means therefore, the process by which people are brought to an understand and appreciation of what is valuable in human life.
In a another word, education is an influence to which every one is continually subjected by the physical, biological and social environments in which he lives. It also mean the nature of personal growth and conservation, transmission and renewal of culture. In summary, education is the heart of die, so also if education of a nation, suffer the nation will suffer. Industrial harmony is the key to educational growth.
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS: A tripartite relationship involving three parties namely, the owners of work, the employees or their representatives and government agency for the purpose of setting job rules and regulations.
INDUSTRIAL DISHARMONY: When there is inability among the participating parties in industrial relations to reach peaceful agreement as it affects job rules and conditions of work generally.
LOCK OUT: This is the employers action of closing a business enterprise for the purpose of enforcing a demand on the employees by causing them to be thrown out of work.