The study examines the duties of the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) revealing that the above mentioned agency has the capacity to initiate development and security in the nation-state describing the Nigerian state as a source and destination for migrants. The study revealed the consequences faced by the Nigerian state on International Migration (as a sending state and a receiving state). The study also shows that the agency, Nigerian Immigration Services (NIS) has various challenges, which are the reasons for the level of performance of the agency. The study tends to inform the Nigerian public on the gains and loss of international migration. This study adopts the ex-post facto research design taking the shape of a qualitative and quantitative research method as questionnaires were administered making use of the spearman’s rank correlation, results were also gotten through the chiquare calculations. Also in checking the validity of the collected data Crobach alpha statistics was adopted. The major findings of this study reveal that the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) has some challenges and these challenges hinders the success of this agency in bringing socio-economic development into the Nigerian State . However, for Nigeria to benefit profitably from International Migration, the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) has to be efficient in her duties and also needs the cooperation of the Nigerian federal government (FG), as it relates to socio-economic development and security functions.
1.1 Background to the Study
Since the beginning of creation, humans have always involved themselves in movement activities. This has been a major feature in the history of Africa and the entire globe generally (Akanji, 2012). Migration cannot be inevitable from the history of the story of man, families, villages and nation- state. Therefore, migration can be traced as far back as the existence of man, most especially when man desired to go in search of food during various famine seasons; also another reason for migrating in those days was the desire of separating from the crowd as well as the seeking for independence. As earlier revealed virtually all individuals and nation states have one or two traces of migration history (Internal and international) mostly influenced by two factors these are the “Pull” and “Push” factors. Migration can be internal or international. Internal migration explains the movement of individuals within same geographical territory which in this case can be from rural to urban or from Lagos to Abuja .While, International Migration has to do with the crossing of borders or international boundaries such as Cameroon to Nigeria described as South-South Migration, Nigeria to United States of America described also as South-North Migration. For the sake of this study International Migration as regard South– South Migration also known as Regional Integration and South-North Migration are focused on.
For International Migration (Emigration and Immigration) to take place the sending state, the receiving state and the migrant is involved in the migration process. This is where the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) and various migration policies play a part which is to regulate the migration activities in Nigeria as a destination nation state and a sending nation state. International Migration is a global culture in which a reasonable amount of individuals (nationals) practice.
International Migration (Emigration and Immigration) can be of great benefits to a nation state through agreements and partnerships with others (states) in the international system. As observed from literatures, developing countries engage more in International Migration than the developed countries (International Organization Migration, 2014:4). About 1billion migrants are around the world presently not residing in their nation state of origin (International Federal Red Cross and Red Crescent, 2012) as these migrants around the globe can make up a 6th nation state after the order of China, Indian, United States of America (USA), Indonesia and Brazil (Martin and Widgren, 2002:3) as people tend to move from a particular place to another for various reasons best known to them also being an essential part of man’s nature (Adeola and Fayomi, 2012:1).
International Migration is said to be at its increase due to the wide spread taught benefits and awareness of opportunities in various countries through various platforms such as the television, internet among other mediums. International Migration (particularly immigration) is a sensitive issue in discussions and debates in the international system. However, this foundation and trend as well as various rising phases of globalization have contributed in influencing the tradition and culture of International Migration in our immediate world. This globalization which has unfolded itself in different phases has raised alarm of great benefits and opportunities around the globe. This benefit ranges from job opportunities, international education certifications, interconnectedness, international relations between countries creating avenue for interdependence most especially in the aspect of manpower (Fayomi, 2013). Other great benefits among them are the pleasure of being a citizen of the nation state individuals so well desire (Martin and widgren, 2002:8). Due to this perceived opportunities International Migration became a popular culture and trend in our present world (Wickramasinghe, 2016:14).
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND THE STUDY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: THE ROLE OF NIGERIAN IMMIGRATION SERVICE