PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF WATER DRAWN FROM LINED AND UNLINED WELLS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA

  • Type: Project
  • Department: Physiology
  • Project ID: PGY0033
  • Access Fee: ₦5,000 ($14)
  • Pages: 83 Pages
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  • Views: 106
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TABLE OF CONTENT

 Cover Pagei

Fly Leafii

Title Pageiii

Declarationiii

Certificationiv

Acknowledgementv

Table of Contentvi

List of Tablesx

Abstractxii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 introduction1

1.1.Statement of Research Problems3

1.2.Justification4

1.3.Aim5

1.4.Specific objectives‖5

CHAPTER TWO

2.0.Literature review6

2.1.Water 6

2.1.1.Global Water Supply6

2.1.2.Water Supply in Nigeria8

2.2.Sources of Fresh Water9

2.2.1.Surface Water9

2.2.2.Ground Water10

2.3.Wells11

2.3.1.Driven Wells11

2.3.2.Drilled Wells11

2.3.3.Hand-dug Wells11

2.4.1.Pre-cast Concrete Rings12

2.4.2.In Situ Lining12

2.4.3.Supported Excavation (The ‗Chicago‘ Method)13

2.5.Water Pollution13

2.6.Causes of Water Pollution14

2.6.1.Domestic Activities14

2.6.2.Local Market Commercial Activities15

2.6.3.Oil Spills15

2.7.Water Quality16

2.7.1.Microbial Indicators of Drinking Water Quality16

2.7.2.Physical Indicators of Drinking Water Quality21

2.7.3.Chemical Indicators of Drinking Water Quality22

2.8Water Borne Pathogens24

2.8.1Bacteria Pathogens24

2.8.2.Protozoan Pathogens26

2.8.3.Viral Pathogens28

2.9.Water Treatment31

2.9.1Aeration31

2.9.2.Coagulation and Flocculation31

2.9.3.Sedimentation32

2.9.4.Filtration32

2.9.5.Disinfection32

2.9.6.Distillation33

CHAPTER THREE

3.0.Materials and Methods34

3.1.Study Area34

3.3.Collection of Samples36

3.4.Physico-chemical Analyses37

3.4.1.Ph measurement37

3.4.2.Conductivity Measurement37

3.4.3.Determination of Total Dissolved Solids38

3.5.Parasitological Analyses38

3.6.Bacteriological Analysis38

3.6.1.Standard Plate Count38

3.6.2.Coliforms Counts39

3.6.2.1.Total Coliforms and e. Coli Counts39

3.6.2.2.Thermotolerant Coliforms39

3.6.3.Biochemical Characterization of the Bacteria Isolates39

3.6.3.1.Motility Test40

3.6.3.2.Citrate Utilization Test40

3.6.3.3Indole Test40

3.6.3.4Urease Test40

3.6.3.5. Methyl Red and Voges-Proskauer (mr-vp) Tests41

3.6.4.Characterization of the Bacteria Isolates using Microgen Test Kit41

3.5.4.1 Preparation of Suspension of the Test Organism41

3.6.4.2 Inoculation of the Organism and Incubation41

3.6.4.3. Reading and Addition of Reagent42

3.6.5.Antibiotic Susceptibility Test42

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0.Results44

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0.Discussion65

CHAPTER SIX

6.0.Conclusion and Recommendation73

6.1.Conclusions73

6.2.Recommendation73

References75


PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF WATER DRAWN FROM LINED AND UNLINED WELLS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA
For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
or
+234 8093 423 853

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  • Type: Project
  • Department: Physiology
  • Project ID: PGY0033
  • Access Fee: ₦5,000 ($14)
  • Pages: 83 Pages
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 106
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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Physiology
    Project ID PGY0033
    Fee ₦5,000 ($14)
    No of Pages 83 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

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