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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY AND CHANGES IN MEDIA PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION; A STUDY OF VANGUARD AND DAILY SUN NEWSPAPER.

  • Type: Project
  • Department: Mass Communication
  • Project ID: MAS0837
  • Price: ₦3,000 ($20)
  • Chapters: 5 Chapters
  • Pages: 118 Pages
  • Methodology: Chi Square
  • Reference: YES
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 524

For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
or
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ABSTRACT

The study is a descriptive survey designed to examine information and communication technology and changes in media production and distribution. A total of one hundred and fourteen respondents comprised staff of Vanguard and Daily Sun newspapers was used as sample size of the study. The study however collected its data from primary and secondary sources. Primary data was collected through interviews and administration of questionnaires. Secondary data was collected from journals, magazines, textbooks, internet, etc. The analysis and presentation of data collected was done through percentage, chart and non-parametric test of Chi-square statistic. The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant relationship between ICTs and media production and distribution in Nigeria. The study therefore recommends among others that media house should provide their staff with training and refresher IT centres in their organization to help refreshing and updating their knowledge of new media technologies as new innovations emerge and government as a matter of policy must ensure that there is total removal of all barriers militating against the acquisition of new media facilities for media houses.


                        TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Of Study
1.2 State Of The Research Problem
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance Of The Study
1.7 Scope And Limitations Of Study
1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms


CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Sources Literature

2. 2 The Review

2.2.1 Newspaper Production Process
2.2.2 Concept of Information Communication Technology
2.2.3 Types of Communication Technologies in Media Industry
2.24  Information Gathering and Dissemination
2.2.5 Impacts of ICT on Information Gathering and Dissemination 
2.2.6 Challenges of Journalism and New Media

2.2.1 Conceptual Review

2.2.2 Empirical Review

2.3 Theoretical Framework

2.4 Summary Of The Review


CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Method
3.2 Research Design/ Technique
3.3 Research Population
3.4 Sampling And Sampling Technique
3.5 Sampling Size
3.6 Method Of Data Collection
3.7 Method Of Data Analysis
3.8 Validity Of Research Instrument
3.9 Reliability Of Research Instrument

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 Data Presentation
4.2 Data Analysis
4.3 Analysis Of Hypotheses 
4.4 Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, PRESENTATION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations

REFERENCES
APPENDIX (ES)
QUESTIONNAIRE

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study
The new media technologies has revolved our contemporary societies bring us together in variety of ways that could never have  been thought possible. For instance, in the 19th century it took several weeks if not months for a message to reach North America from England by ship. At the dawn of the 21st century, it could be transmitted within an hour. But today, information can be transmitted in seconds. Surmounting one of the greatest challenges to information posed by distance with the internet today, means that people can communicate and access information anywhere in the world regardless of where they are located in the globe. (Severin & Tankard, 2001).
Prior to the 1980s, the media world relied principally upon print and analogue broadcast models, especially the ones used by television and radio stations. But the last twenty-five years have been a transformation period, as rapid transformation in the sector is been witnessed. This rapid transformation in the media which is largely predicated upon the use of digital computers, such as the Internet and other portable digital devices like mobile phones, iPods, MP3 Players and so on. However, these examples are only a small representation of new media technologies. For instance, the use of digital computers has transformed the remaining 'old' media, as suggested by the advent of digital television and online publications and propelled by the need for media convergence in a digitalized world (Wikipedia, 2012). 
The wide range of recording of news with high sophistication, editing database, photo imaging, and mixing software provided cutting-edge facilities to broadcast industry. The use of telefax, websites, online database, and web based information sites, and online readers and new smakers, made the cumbersome job of information collection and reporting easier than ever before. It would not be wrong to postulate that whole nature of editorial job has changed under the influence of IT (Adesoji, 2006). 
The last two decades or so witnessed tremendous advancement in the spread of the knowledge of information and communication technology. No wonder every segment of society, including the press, is virtually impacted by these developments. Even though the knowledge spread slowly to, or was latently embraced in Nigeria, its effects have been enormous as it has also revolutionized the conduct, method and quality of media practices through quickening information dissemination (Ibid). 
Information and communication technologies (ICT) are an umbrella term that covers all technical means for processing and communicating information. The term has gained popularity partially due to the convergence of information technology (IT) and telecom technology. ICT defines a broad range of technologies, including methods for communication (communication protocols, transmission techniques, communications equipment, media communication), as well as techniques for storing and processing information (computing, data storage, etc.) Also, Information and communication technologies (ICT) are often associated with high-tech devices, such as computers and software, but ICT also encompasses more “conventional” technologies such as radio, television and telephone technology. The term, information and communication technology (ICT) refers to forms of technology that are used to transmit, store, create, share or exchange information. This broad definition of ICT includes such technologies as: radio, television, video, DVD, telephone (both fixed line and mobile phones), satellite systems, computer and network hardware and software; as well as the equipment and services associated with these technologies, such as videoconferencing and electronic mail (Wikepedia, 2009). 


Historical Background of Print Media in Nigeria
The advent of newspaper in Nigeria was dated back to 1859 when the first newspaper called “Iwe Irohin” was established by Reverend Henry Townsend of the Anglican Mission in Egba land in the present Ogun state. This newspaper was called “Iwe irohin Fun Awon Egba”, meaning, the newspaper for the Egba people. 
The establishment of Iwe Irohin was to help the overall development of the Egba people. The newspaper was sold for 120 cowries. It was first produced in Yoruba language but in 1860, the English version was added. The Iwe Irohin was principally designed to teach the masses different subjects like religion, mathematics, geography and how to spell. Iwe Irohin was devoted to announcement of marriages, Church and post office news. The newspaper also carried adverts of vacancies for house boys and clerks. It was also used to teach the public about the politics and history of the nation. The audiences of Iwe Irohin were the interior Yoruba villages, Lagos inclusive (Tador, 1996).
The newspaper folded up after involving itself in the crises that engulfed Egba land in 1867. The Europeans were expelled from the town while missionary buildings were looted and destroyed. Most of the vernacular newspapers existing today were modelled after Iwe Irohin. The newspaper set a standard for newspapering in Nigeria. The Iwe Irohin stimulated the establishment of the Anglo African Newspaper. Reverend Henry Townsend was seen as the father of Nigerian press. He printed modern newspapers despite the fact that he was a religious man.
The next newspaper to be established after Iwe Irohin was the Anglo African Newspaper. It was the second newspaper that was established in Nigeria by a foreigner-a West Indian immigrant called Robert Campbell. The newspaper was established in Lagos in 1863 to promote the interest and welfare of Lagosians. Campbell who was a printer was publishing the newspaper in English language and it was a weekly newspaper that was sold for three pence. The news coverage was more than that of Iwe Irohin. It carried both local and international news. The first page of the newspaper was devoted to advertisements, notices and announcements. The newspaper folded up in 1865. Between 1863 and 1879, some other newspapers were established in Nigeria. In 1880, Lagos Times and The Gold Coast Advertiser were established in Lagos. The Lagos Observer was established in Lagos and it survived till 1890. The Eagle and Lagos Critic were first published in 1883 and survived till 1888. 
These newspapers criticized the policies of government and helped to fight for independence. The Nigerian Pioneer was established in 1914 by a Nigerian named Kitoyi Ajasa in Lagos. The publisher was a reputable Lawyer. He was always corroborating the colonial government because, he was educated in England and was used to the style (life). It folded up in 1937.
The African Messenger was established by Earnest Okoli in 1921. It was a weekly newspaper and was sold for 3 pence. It was however bought over in 1926 by the Daily Times and Okoli was employed as the Chief Editor. In 1925, Herbert McCauley established The Daily News which was printed in Nigeria and was the first political newspaper. It served as a voice of McCauley’s party called NDP. The Nigerian Daily Times was jointly established in 1926 by a Nigerian called Adeyemo Alakija and a Briton called Richard Barrow. Earnest Okoli who was the publisher of the African Messenger was employed as the Editor because his own newspaper had already collapsed due to 
lack of fund.
In 1948, the Nigerian Daily Times became an affiliate of London Daily Mirror. The duo eventually went under due to lack of funds. London Daily Mirror, however, became an affiliate to London Daily Mirror. In 1937 when Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe (popularly known as ZIK) was an editor of a newspaper called, “The African Morning Post ”he also established the newspaper, The West African Pilot in Lagos. The West African Pilot carried news on the plight of farmers, the unemployed, market women, among other groups. It sought to redress the problems caused by the colonizers, criticized their policies and demanded for self rule for Nigeria. Dr. Azikiwe was determined to fill the partial journalistic vacuum in Nigeria and he gave attention to change of layout, headlines, length of sentence and paragraphs, style of presentation, editorials and the effectiveness of pictures. 
The commercial success of The West African Pilot boosted in the 1940s and Zik was encouraged to embark on the first chain of newspapers. He sold about twenty thousand copies (20,000) a day and it was the highest then in Nigeria. He established the Eastern Nigerian Guardian in Port Harcourt in 1940, Nigerian Spokesman in Onitsha in 1944, Daily Comet in Kano in 1949, Northern Advocate in Jos and Sentinel in Enugu in 1947. He gave all these newspapers the name, “Advocate.‟
The important thing was that Zink’s chain of newspapers was produced with sophisticated materials. He used the West African Pilot to mobilize people against the colonial rule in Nigeria. With the West African Pilot based in Lagos as headquarters and with branches under different names in strategic areas of the country, Zik then became the 
doyen of modern Nigerian Journalism. He was very imaginative in his plans of awakening political consciousness through the print media–(press). His own journalism was the type that replaced the archaic and improvised journalism that had previously existed. The first edition of the West African Pilot appeared on the streets of Lagos and other places within the country on November 22, 1937. 
The mass audience the West African Pilot took away from other newspapers was so great that the Nigerian Daily Times quickly re-organized in order to meet the challenges of the Pilot. Azikiwe was a frequent target of the anger of the colonial masters because of the kind of stories his newspaper carried. Thus, in 1945 the Pilot in Lagos was banned for 6 weeks. As a nationalist, Zik never relented. He continued his criticism of the colonial policies. When the pilot was banned in Lagos, he established the Southern Nigerian Defender to fill the gap created by the absence of the Pilot in Lagos.
Chief Obafemi Awolowo also ventured into media industry In 1949 and established the Nigerian Tribune in Ibadan. In 1951 when Awolowo became the leader of the Action Group(AG), he used the Tribune for extensive campaign. The Tribune was also used to struggle for independence by Chief Obafemi Awolowo. The late Sarduana of Sokoto in his efforts to emulate both Chief Obafemi Awolowo and Dr. Azikiwe who used their newspaper industries to protect political interest of their zone also established a “Gaskiya Tafi Kobo” newspaper in Kaduna in 1956. The Gaskiya Tafi Kobo in Hausa language means “truth is more than money‟. 

1.2 State Of The Research Problem
The effect of ICT on news processing has been the challenge faced by media industry. These challenges are on ideas about how to gather, store, process and deliver information, and, at the same time that they are branching out into the new fields, newspapers are using these newly learned concepts to restructure internal operations as well. It could be argued that the employment of computer technology in the newsroom and in news processing will increase cost, as money would have to be invested into acquiring both hardware and software creating or building websites, include remunerations for personnel that would man and constantly maintain them. However, going by global trends, which foretell an increase in the employment and the deployment of computer technology in news processing. This points out that ICT facilitates the creation, storage, management and dissemination of information by electronic means (Gester, 2003). 
Abiahenu (2006) pointed that ICT facilitates communication and processing of information, saves time and reduce cost. However, when information technology is discussed, it puts people out of jobs. The reverse is often the case. This technology takes over mechanical assignment and frees individuals for more intellectual productive work Similarly, if this technology will achieve its overall objective, there is need for faster and more accurate means of solving manual operations of data processing and better storage devices for information and data as provided by the computer system, the complexities of modern technology have produced great mathematical, scientific, and engineering problem and hence, enhanced news processing. The Nigerian broadcast and print media like other facet of life and human endeavour in the country seem to have embraced information and communication technology to some extent. The information era has seem to have taken the world by storm with the way it is affecting the society. Supported in its entirety by the communication technology, information spread vastly become faster and cheaper. 
The media through which information is disseminated also gets varied in types, further revolutionizing the information era. In the past, there is a significant time lag separating the point when an event took place and the time when the news may be publicly available. The advancement of radio and television allows for the real time coverage of an event. In its time, the existence of radio broadcasting audio-based news was considered revolutionary in information dissemination. The birth of television upgrades the information era to the level where visualization is part of the necessities. And now the convergence of computer and media technologies have compelled media organization to adopt ICT in their daily operations. 
At this point, the question that comes to mind is what is new about the new media? McQuail (2005) notes that the new media are disparate set of communication technologies that share certain features apart from being new, made possible by digitalization and being widely available for personal use as communication devices. It therefore makes it imperative to study the effect and challenges of these technologies in their various aspect of media operation.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The main objective of the study is on information and Communications Technology and changes in media production and distribution. The specific objectives are:
i. To know the contribution of ICTs to newspaper production in Nigeria
ii. To verify how effective the application of ICTs have been in newspaper production and distribution in Nigeria. 
iii. To find out the opportunities exist for the application of ICTs in newspaper production and distribution in Nigeria.
iv. To find out the extent to which ICTs have affected manual production in newspaper industry in Nigeria.
v. To identify challenges facing adoption of ICTs in newspaper industry in Nigeria.


1.4 Research Questions
i. What is the status of ICTs on Nigeria Newspaper industry?
ii. What are the impacts of ICTs on newspaper production in Nigeria?
iii. What opportunities exist for the application of ICTs in newspaper production and distribution in Nigeria?
iv. Have ICT’s affected the manual production processes in newspaper industry in Nigeria?
v. What are the challenges of ICTs adoption in newspaper industry in Nigeria?


1.5 Research Hypotheses
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between status of ICTs and newspaper industry in Nigeria.
Ho2:There is no significant relationship between impact of ICTs and newspaper production and distribution in Nigeria.
Ho3: There is no significant relationship between application of ICTs and newspaper production and distribution in Nigeria.
Ho4: There is no significant relationship between ICTs and manual production process of newspaper industry in Nigeria.
Ho5: There is no significant relationship between challenges of ICT and newspaper industry in Nigeria.


1.6 Significance Of The Study
This study helps to show how Information Communication Technologies (ICT) have improved the delivery of news, research and news gathering processes of newspapers industry in Nigeria. The study is significant because it helps to know how the daily reality of ICTs contributes in newspaper production process. The findings of this research will provide reasonable information to government and stakeholders in media industry for better understanding of information and Communications Technology and changes in media production and distribution .The findings of the study will be of immense benefit to future researchers who will make use of the findings to conduct further research work in the area of information and Communications Technology and changes in media production and distribution. Finally, the findings of the study will also contribute to available store of knowledge given the fact that the materials of the research work will enhance the already existing information in the research work.

1.7 Scope And Limitations Of Study
The focus of this study is on information and Communications Technology and changes in media production and distribution with a case study of Vanguard and Daily Sun newspapers. The study does not cover the generality of influence on all the equipment used in media rather it is limited to only new media internet, satellite technology, cable system, computer technology, digital cameras, Digital television, teletext, microwave technology and fibre optics employed in media industry. 


1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms
Information: This is a created, stored and processed facts retrieved and transmitted.

Communication: This is a process of receiving and transmitting information, ideas and opinions from one person or group of persons to another.

Media Technologies: This refers to any special device or medium that helps in the processing, distribution, storage, display and reception of information.

Information Technology: According to Cambridge Encyclopedia, it is a term commonly used to explain the range of technologies relevant to the transfer of information (Knowledge, data, text, drawing, audio recordings, video sequences, etc) in particular to computer, digital electronic, and telecommunication .

Broadcast: Electronic means by which information is transmitted to a large and heterogeneous audience. The broadcast media include the radio and television stations.

New media: Modern Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) used as a channel for the dissemination of information to a heterogeneous audience regardless of time, space and distance e.g. Internet, DVD, mobile phones among others.

Old media: These are old medium of communication that are essentially one directional like the newspaper, radio, television among others.

Internet: Internet is also known as the “Net” or the “Web”. It is easily understood as a “network”. Specifically, it is the worldwide publicly accessible network of international computer networks that transmits data by packet switching using the standard internet protocol (IP). 

Digitization: It is a general word for the computerization of all data transmission. Storage and processing employing the binary code, and as such the basis for convergence of media. It is currently best known in reference to the replacement of analogue by digital transmission of television signals, leading to a large increase in potential channel capacity and scope for interactivity.

 

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY AND CHANGES IN MEDIA PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION; A STUDY OF VANGUARD AND DAILY SUN NEWSPAPER.
For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
or
+234 8093 423 853

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  • Type: Project
  • Department: Mass Communication
  • Project ID: MAS0837
  • Price: ₦3,000 ($20)
  • Chapters: 5 Chapters
  • Pages: 118 Pages
  • Methodology: Chi Square
  • Reference: YES
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 524
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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Mass Communication
    Project ID MAS0837
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 118 Pages
    Methodology Chi Square
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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