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Project Topic: OIL SPILL AND ITS EFFECT ON HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENT

  • Type: Project
  • Department: Environmental Science
  • Project ID: EVS0114
  • Price: ₦3,000 ($20)
  • Chapters: 4 Chapters
  • Pages: 32 Pages
  • Methodology: Descriptive
  • Reference: YES
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 371

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OIL SPILL AND ITS EFFECT ON HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT

An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity, and it is a form of pollution. The effect of oil spills does not only occur in water and soil, it also has effect on the vegetation, ecosystem damage, on agriculture, man and the entire environment. It is pertinent to know that the first noticeable effect of oil spill across the surface of any land in an area is likely to be upon vegetation. Oil spill effects are usually pronounced on the soil flora and fauna as well as the soil structure. The general effect depends on the amount of oil spilled. Its effects cuts across humans flora, soil, water, air, climate, landscape and onshore water. It affects agricultural products by causing low crop yield and acidity which change crop adaptability. Oil spillage also has effect on the ecosystem into which it is released and may constitute ecocide. Longest spilled oil by the marine animals results in irritating digestive and respiratory tracts, liver damages, kidney failure, dehydration and metabolic imbalance. There are several methods of oil spill cleanup which included; using oil booms, using sorbents, burning In-situ, Using Dispensers, Skimming, Using Hot Water and Huge Force, using manual labour and using technological aid. It was concluded that although, the activities that come with the oil exploration and exploitation causes alterations to the environment which significantly have negative effects; some of the effects that come with petroleum development can be reduced or prevented basically by taking some steps in terms of prevention. We recommend the adoption of environmentally friendly technology that will minimize impacts of petroleum development on the environment; gas flaring, the gas can be converted to alcohol for diverse uses or used as an alternative energy source.
 TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
1.0    INTRODUCTION                            
1.1    History of Oil Spillage in Nigeria                
CHAPTER TWO
2.0    CAUSES AND EFFECT OF OIL SPILLAGE             
2.1    Causes of Oil Spillage                        
2.2    Effect of Oil Spillage                         
2.3    Effect of Oil Spillage on the Environment            
2.4    Effect of Oil Spillage on Agriculture                
2.5    Ecosystem Damage                            
2.6    Loss of Mangrove Forests/Global Deforestation    
2.7    Depletion of Fish Population/Marine Animals        
2.8    Gas Flaring and Population                    
2.9    Human Health Implications                    
CHAPTER THREE
3.0    PREVENTION AND REMEDIES OF OIL SPILLAGE    
3.1    Prevention                                
3.2    Remedies                                    
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS            
4.1    Conclusion                                
4.2    Recommendations                            
    References                                
CHAPTER ONE
1.0        INTRODUCTION
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity, and it is a form of pollution (Wikipedia, 2016).
Oil spillage is said to occur when there is an accidental discharge of oil into the sea, land, river and lakes as a result of drilling, loading, discharging operations, bunkering, and defective pipelines, transport by tankers, industrial plants, natural forces and unconventional system (Anderson, 1989).
The term is usually applied to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters, but spills may also occur on land. Oil spills may be due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel etc) and their by-products, heavier fuel used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or spill of any oily refuse or waste oil.
From studies done by the Shell Petroleum Development Company (1995), the effect of oil spills does not only occur in water and soil, it also has effect on the vegetation of that area, thereby causing economic losses to the companies and inhabitants of the polluted area. The effect of the oil spill usually depends on the amount of oil spill, the level of toxicity, the properties of the soil and the time the spillage occur.
It is pertinent to know that the first noticeable effect of oil spill across the surface of any land in an area is likely to be upon vegetation. When an oil film enters the pores of plant there is an interference of sunlight and death occurs as the oil goes into the roots thus preventing the uptake of water or causes the release of toxic substances to the soil. Backer found out that this could render the affected soil temporarily sterile and could upset the ecological balance of the affected area (Barker, 1990).
Oil spills penetrates into the structure of the plumage of birds, and the fur of mammals, destroys potential agricultural lands, kill fishes in water bodies and renders water unfit for drinking. Clean-up and recovery from oil spill is difficult and depends upon many factors, including the type of oil spilled, the temperature of water (which affects evaporation and biodegradation) and the types of shorelines and beaches involved, and spills may take months or even years to clean up.
Oil spills can have disastrous consequences for society – economically, environmentally and socially. As a result, oil spills accidents have initiated intense media attention and political uproar, bringing many together in a political struggle concerning government response to oil spills and actions taken to prevent them.        
Transporting oil from production sources to consumption locations entails risks, most notably, the risk of accidental oil spills, which can cause severe damage to ecosystems and loss to human society. Globally, inter-regional trade in oil is forecasted to grow markedly in coming decades (IEA 2010). Planning for oil spill disasters requires learning from previous events, yet this is challenging because consequences are conditional upon the particular geographic, ecological, societal, and temporal contexts in which the disaster occurs. We address the need for systematic approaches to develop well-informed expectations of the potential consequences of future oil spill disasters.
    Nevertheless, accidental spills constitute a significant environmental threat because they imply a high oil concentration, even though the impacts will mainly be local or regional. The natural degradation of oil in the Arctic will generally be slow due to low temperatures and the possibilities of recovery and the harsh climatic conditions and lack of infrastructure can hamper cleanup. Furthermore, if oil is spilled in broken ice, it will tend to pool in the open leads, and wind may keep it in the ice edge area.     The leads and ice edges are utilized by high concentrations of birds and mammals during their northward migrations in spring. Oil is toxic to almost all organisms. The toxic effect depends on the composition and concentration of the oil, and the sensitivity of the species affected. A species may have a high individual sensitivity and low population sensitivity if individuals are evenly or widely distributed and have a high reproductive capacity. This is the case for many species in lower tropic levels.
1.1    HISTORY OF OIL SPILLAGE IN NIGERIA
    Oil was first found in Nigeria in 1956, then a British Protectorate, by a joint operation between Royal Dutch Shell and British Petroleum. The two begun production in 1958, and were soon joined by a host of other foreign companies in the 1960s after the country gained independence and shortly after, fell into civil war.
    The rapidly expanding oil industry was dogged in controversy from early on, with criticism that its financial proceeds were being exported r lost in corruption rather than used to help the millions living on $1 a day in Niger Delta or reduce its impact on the local environment.  A major 1970 Oil spill in Ogoniland in the South-East of Nigeria led to thousands of gallons being spilt on farmlands and rivers, ultimately leading to a £26m fink for shell in Nigerian courts 30 years later. According to the Nigerian government, there were more than 7,000 spills between 1970 and 2000.
    In 1990, the government announced a new round of oil field licensing, the largest since the 1960s. Non-violent opposition to the companies by the Ogoni people in the early 1990s over the contamination of their land and lack of financial benefit from the oil revenues attracted international attention. Then, in 1995 Ogoni author and campaigner Ken Saro-Wiwa was charged with incitement to be murdered and executed by Nigeria’s military government. In 2009, Shell agreed to pay £9.6m out of court, in a settlement of a legal action which accused it of collaborating in the execution of Saro-Wiwa and eight other tribal leaders.
In escalation of opposition to the environmental degradation and underdevelopment, armed groups began sabotaging pipelines and kidnapping oil company staff from 2006, with a ceasefire called in 2009 by one group the movement for the emancipation of the Niger Delta. A year later, it announced an “all-out oil war” after a crackdown by Nigerian military.   Hundreds of minor courts are brought each year in Nigeria over oil spills and pollution. Shell admitted spilling 14,000 tons of crude oil in the cracks of the Niger Delta in 2009.         
OIL SPILL AND ITS EFFECT ON HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENT
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  • Type: Project
  • Department: Environmental Science
  • Project ID: EVS0114
  • Price: ₦3,000 ($20)
  • Chapters: 4 Chapters
  • Pages: 32 Pages
  • Methodology: Descriptive
  • Reference: YES
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 371
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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Environmental Science
    Project ID EVS0114
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 4 Chapters
    No of Pages 32 Pages
    Methodology Descriptive
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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