+234 813 0686 500
+234 809 3423 853


  • Type:Project
  • Pages:78
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Civil Engineering Project Topics & Materials)


The Project work presents an Optimum design of welded plate girder. A simply supported plate girder with span of 15meters was chosen for the case study. The girder was subjected to a self-weight of 50KN/m and concentrated loads of 1000KN at 5m and 10m from the left support. The plate girder was analysed to get the design moments and shear forces. An initial manual design was carried out for the plate girder in accordance with BS 5950-2000. From the design, initial section parameters comprising flange breadth, flange thickness, web depth and web thickness were assigned to the plate girder. The initial section parameters were then subjected to an optimisation process using Generalised Reduced Gradient (GRG) in Excel solver Add-in. From the optimisation process there was 19.34% reduction in the area of the plate girder which translates to 19.34% reduction in weight. This shows that optimisation process can be an effective tool in the search for solution into real world problems.



Title Page   






Table of Contents

List of Figures               

List of Tables                

List of Notations           


1.1. Background of study

1.2. Statement of Problem

1.3. Aim and Objectives of Study

1.4. Scope of Study

1.5. Significance of Study


2.1. Definition of plate girder

2.2. Types of plate girder

2.3. Different shapes of flanges and webs

2.3.1, Load bearing stiffeners

2.3.2. Longitudinal stiffeners

2.3.3. Transverse Stiffeners

2.4 Introduction of weld and stiffness to girder

2.5 Design methods of girders

2.6 Typical span-to-depth ratio for different girders

2.6.1. Span configuration

2.6.2. Girder Spacing

2.6.3. Spacing

2.6.4. Section Proportion


3.1. Introduction

3.2. Design Problem

3.3. Design Considerations

3.4. Design Procedure   

3.4.1. Determination of section parameters        

3.4.2. Dimension/sizing of plate girder element

3.4.3. Section classification/proportional limitation

3.4.4. Moment Resistance      

3.4.5. Choice of Optimum depth

3.5. Optimisation programme

3.5.1. Design Parameters        

3.5.2. Assumptions

3.5.3. Optimisation Process

3.5.4. Optimizer (Excel solver) settings

3.6. The Investigations

3.6.1. Selection of Numerical problem      

3.6.2. The pilot design and search for pattern

3.6.3. Detailed Investigations



4.1. Design Brief 

4.2. Loading        

4.3. Design shear forces and moments                

4.4. Initial sizing of plate girder

4.5. Section Classification

4.6. Dimension of web and flanges  

4.7. Moment Resistance

4.8. Shear buckling resistance of web        

4.9. Shear buckling resistance of end panel AB  

4.10. Optimisation Result Analysis

4.11. Discussion of Results


5.1. Conclusion

5.2. Recommendations




Fig. 1.1; Plate girder composed of three plates   

Figure 2.2; plate girder configurations                

Figure 2.3; Plate girder with splice and variable cross-section                  

Figure 2.4; Plate girder with haunches, tapers and cranks               

Figure 2.5; Plate girder with hole for service       

Figure 2.6; Plate girder proportions 

Figure 2.7; Typical diaphragm and cross-sections of plate girders  

Figure 2.8: Components of Typical I-Girder Bridge     

Figure 2.9; Typical plate girder                 

Figure 2.10; End panel strengthened by longitudinal stiffener

Figure 3.1 Optimisation process

Figure 3.2 Symmetrical girder section       

Figure 4.1; Plate girder span and loading  

Figure 4.2; Load diagram of the plate girder       

Figure 4.3; Shear force diagram of the plate girder       

Figure 4.4; Moment diagram of the plate girder  

Figure 4.5; Final plate girder section details

Figure 4.6; Variation of flange thickness with web depth      

Figure 4.7; Variation of plate girder area with web depth      

Figure 4.8; Variation of % increase in weight with web depth         

Figure 4.9; Variation of web thickness with web depth

Figure 4.10; Variation of flange breadth with web depth

Figure 4.11; Variation of flange thickness with web thickness        


















Table 3.1; Typical span/effective depth ratios    

Table 4.1; Initial and optimised section results   

Table 4.2; Variation of flange thickness with web depth        

Table 4.3; Variation of area of plate girder with web depth   

Table 4.4; Variation %reduction in weight with web depth   

Table 4.5; Variation of web thickness with web depth 

Table 4.6; Variation of flange breadth with web depth 

Table 4.7; Variation of flange thickness with web thickness  











Af = area of flange plate

a = stiffener spacing

Pyw = characteristic strength of web

Pyf = characteristic strength of flange

M = bending Moment

h = overall depth

tf = flange thickness

fy = yield strength of steel

mo = partial safety factor (resistance of class 1, 2, 3 cross-sections)

Mf = bending moment of flange

Rd = diagonal resistance

b = breadth

bf = section flange width

tf = section flange thickness

dw = depth of web

D = depth of section

tw = web thickness

Py = steel design strength

Ag = gross sectional area

Fv = design shear force

Fc = design axial compression

Mb = buckling resistance moment

MA = moment at section A

Mmax = maximum moment

MD = moment at section D

Pb = buckling strength

PV = shear strength

γfd  =dead load factor

γfi = live load feactor

w = self-weight (UDL)

W = concentrated load

Mx = maximum major axis moment in the segment length Lx governing Pcx

MLT = maximum major axis moment in the segment length L governing Mb

Pcy = compression resistance considering buckling about minor axis only

λy = slenderness ratio about the minor axis.

VA = reaction force at section A

VB = reaction force at section B

VC = reaction force at section C

VD = reaction force at section D

VE = reaction force at section E

Vcr = critical shear buckling resistance

Fv = maximum shear force;

Vw = simple shear buckling resistance.

Mu = maximum applied moment

L = length of girder 


Share This


Type Project
Department Civil Engineering
Project ID CVE0124
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
No of Pages 78 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

Leave a comment...


    Type Project
    Department Civil Engineering
    Project ID CVE0124
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    No of Pages 78 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

    Related Works

    CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1    Background of Study Massive integration of information technology into all aspects of modern life caused demand for processing vehicles as conceptual resources in information systems. Because a standalone information system without any... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Public vehicle traffic management is becoming harder, as the number of the vehicles on Nigerian roads is increasing. The Federal Road Safety Corps and other law enforcement agencies face real problems dealing with the different kinds of traffic violation, which introduces the need for an automated way to help identifying and controlling... Continue Reading
    CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1     B ac k ground of study Traffic laws and regulations in Nigeria were inherited from colonial administration. The first Edith is the 1920 Road Traffic Ordinance of Lagos Colony and Southern... Continue Reading
      CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Vehicle Registration in Nigeria began over 100 years ago and the records have been essentially manual which in turn has not help to raise the efficiency of general automotive services in recent years. Today, computer has been discovered as a very efficient instrument, which has played a very significant role in... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Electricity companies typically possess numerous units and they need to commit unit because electricity cannot be stored in a large-scale system and demand is a random variable process fluctuating with the time of the day and the day of the week. A problem that must be frequently resolved by electricity utility is to economically... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Steel is arguably the world’s most ‘advanced” material. It is a very versatile material with a wide range of attractive properties which can be produced at a very competitive cost. It has a diverse range of applications, and is second only to concrete in its annual production tonnage. Steel is not a new invention which leads to a... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The effect of Heat treatment on the Mechanical Properties of a welded joint of medium carbon steel has been carried out. The materials were cut, welded, to get 27 samples needed. Thereafter, Heat Treatment was carried out on the samples. Then the specimens were grouped into two groups, group A and group B. In group A, after the heat... Continue Reading
    (A CASE STUDY OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA KADUNA) TABLE OF CONTENT Title page    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The fabrication of the solar dryer was successful and test were carried out for various performance comparisons such as No-load and Load performance of the dryer and direct sun drying comparison and noticeable differences was noticed in the final moisture content such that the maximum temperature recorded in the drying chamber and solar... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT This work investigated the variation of top loss heat transfer coefficient with the emittance of the absorber plate, the collector tilt angle and air gap spacing between the absorber plate and the cover plate. The effects of the emittance of the absorber plate, the collector tilt angle and air gap spacing between the plate and the cover... Continue Reading
    Call Us
    Get this work
    whatsappWhatsApp Us