+234 813 0686 500
+234 809 3423 853
+234 813 0686 500


  • Type: Project
  • Department: Chemical Engineering
  • Project ID: CNG0189
  • Price: ₦3,000 ($20)
  • Chapters: 5 Chapters
  • Pages: 65 Pages
  • Methodology: Scientific
  • Reference: YES
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 776

For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
+234 8093 423 853



Studies were conducted to determine the phytochemicasl present in moringa olrifera and Azadrichta indica leaves. Leaves for this work were washed, room dried ground to powder. The ground leave for both sample were soaked in four different solvent; Ethanol, n-Hexane, Ethyl acetate and water for 24 hours. After the contact elapsed the solvent were filtered to recover the extract. Qualitative analysis was carried out on the extract; the result showed moringa oliefera to contain saponin, flavonoid, tannin, phenol, steroid and glycoside. Azadrichta indica contains; saponin, flavonoid, tannin, Alkaloid, steroid and glycoside. Quantitative anaylsis were jalso carried on the extract and the result showed moringa oliefera and Azadrichta indica to contain in percentage flavonoid (21.8 : 23.80), Alkaloids (5.00 : 8.20), saponin ( 0.70 : 1.10 ), phenol ( 0.76 : 1.49 ), Tannin ( 0.08 : 0.57 ) and Glycoside ( 0.005 : 0.0062 ) respectively for moringa oliefera and Azadrichta indica. In the qualitative analysis water was the best solvent for extraction and quantitative analysis; flavonoid, alkaloid, tannin, saponin, phenol and glycoside have higher percentage in Azadrichta indica than moringa oleifera. 



1.1 Background of study

1.2 Phytochemical

1.2.1 Activity of phytochemical

1.3 Statement of problem

1.4 Aims and Objectives of study

1.5 Significant of study

1.6 Scope of study


2.0 Literature review

2.1 Botany of Moringa oleifera 

2.1.1 Classification

2.1.2 Origin and Habitat

2.1.3 Description

2.1.4 Ecology and cultivation

2.1.5 Traditional uses

2.1.6 Common name

2.1.7 Pharmacological activity of Moringa oleifera 

2.2 Botany of Azadrichta indica 

2.2.1 Classification

2.2.2 Origin and habitat

2.2.3 Description

2.2.4 Ecology and cultivation

2.2.5 Traditional uses

2.2.6 Common name

2.2.7 Pharmacological activity of Azadrichta indica 

2.3 Phytochemical

2.3.1 Types of phytochemicals2.3.1.1 Tannin Phenol Saponin Steroids Flavonoids Alkaloids Glycosides


3.0 Materials and Methods

3.1 Collection and preparation of material

3.2 Equipment / apparatus

 3.3 Reagents

3.4 Methods

3.4.1 Qualitative Analysis

3.4.2 Preparation of Wagner’s reagent

3.4.3 Preparation of Mayer’s reagent

3.4.4 Test for Alkaloid

3.4.5 Test for Saponin

3.4.6 Test for Flavonoid

3.4.7 Test for Steroid

3.4.8 Test for Tannin

3.4.9 Test for Glycoside

3.5 Quantitative Analysis

3.5.1 Flavonoid determination

3.5.2 Alkaloid determination

3.5.3 Tannin determination

3.5.4 Saponin determination

3.5.5 Glycoside determination

3.5.6 Phenol determination


4.0 Results and Discussion

4.1 Qualitative Analysis result

4.2 Quantitative Analysis result

4.3 Discussion of result


5.1 Conclusions

5.2 Recommendations




Fig1Moringa oleifera leave

Fig2Azadrichta indica leave

Fig3 Conical flask 

Fig4 Water bath 

Fig5 Electric thermal incubator 

Fig6 Test tube 

Fig7 Electric stove 

Fig8 Separation process setup 

Fig9 Separation funnel 

Fig10 Thermostatic drying oven 


Fig12 Measuring cylinder 

Fig13 Whatman filter paper 

Fig14 Constant temperature magnetic stirrer 

Fig15 UV machine 

Fig16 Electronic weighing balance 

Fig17 phenol standard Graph


Table 4.1a Qualitative Analysis Result of Moringa oleifera

Table 4.1b Qualitative Analysis Result of Azadrichta indica

Table 4.2 Quantitative Analysis Result of Moringa oleifera and 

Azadrichta indica



From time immemorial, man depended on plants as medicine. From a historical perspective, it is evident that the fascination for plants is as old as mankind itself. The plant kingdom represent a rich store house of organic compounds, many of which have been used for medicinal purposes and could serve as lead for the development of novel agents having good efficacy in various pathological disorders in the coming years.Plants are the richest source of drugs for traditional medicine, modern medicines, nutraceuticals food supplements, folk medicine, pharmaceutical intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic drugs (Hammer et al., 1999). The use of plant product as medicines could be traced as far back as the beginning of human civilization. The earliest mentioned medicinal used plant in Hindu culture is found in “Rigveda”, which is said to have been written between 4500-1600 B.C. and is supposed to be the oldest repository human knowledge. The active principle isolated, have provided leads in the development of several life saving drugs, which are in use today (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 2002). 

The isolated active compounds of the plants are secondary metabolites chemical compound that occur naturally in plant with no nutritional value to human life. These active compounds are generally called phytochemical. These phytochemicals play protective roles in plants, each chemical labeled phytochemical works in different ways, not all are the same for human, and not all come from the same plants. Some have shown more promise than others in fighting disease and illness in humans. There are some basic types of these active compounds that are found in different fruits and vegetables. We have some of them like antioxidants, they are present in onions and some other fruits and tea, they act as preventive measure for premature cell death and some forms of cancer and aging. Isoflavones or plant estrogen; they are found in soy and soy products; they are helpful in the year just before and after menopause. Capsaicin is found in hot pepper and it has been shown to significantly reduce prostate tumors in size, at least in mice. Taking capsaicin on a regular basis by eating spicy foods with hot peppers may prove an excellent preventative agent to prostate cancer and benign growth of prostate (Ahmedabad 382- 481). This experiment was carried out on moringaoleifera and Azadirachtaindica leaves. 

Moringaoleifera, or the horseradish tree, is a  small or medium-sized    about 10 m high perennial softwood tree with timber of low quality pantropical specie plant that is known by such regional name as benzolive, drumstick tree, kelor, marango, mlonge, mulangay, nebeday, saijhan and sajan. Over the past two decades, many reports have appeared in the mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties (Akerele, 1993).Moringaoleifera is the most widely cultivated species of a monogenetic family, the moringaceae that is native to the sub-Himalayan tracts of India, Pakistan Bangladesh and Afghanistan, it also now naturalizes in West Africa and Nigeria as a whole. 

Azadirachtaindicaon the other hand is a very useful traditional medicinal plant in the sub-continent and each part of the tree has some medicinal properties. The plant is native to Asia, but has now naturalized in West Africa and is widely cultivated in Nigeria as an ornamental as well as medicinal plant.  

1.2 Phytochemicals 

Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals which occur naturally in plants that have protective or disease preventive properties. They are nonessential nutrients, meaning that they are not required by the human body for sustaining life. It is well-known that plant produces these chemicals to protect them but recent research demonstrates that they can also protect humans against diseases. There are more than thousand known phytochemicals. Some of the well-known phytochemicals are lycopene in tomatoes, isoflavonesin soy and flavanoids in fruits.Alkaloids (examples are Caffeine, Theobromine, Theophylline).Organosulfides(examples are Allicin,Glutathione,Indole3-Carbinol,Isothiocyanates).Tannins, steroids, Glycosides etc. 

1.2.1 Activity of phytochemicals 

Antioxidant - Most phytochemicals have antioxidant activity and protect our cells against oxidative damage and reduce the risk of developing certain types of cancer. Phytochemicals with antioxidant activity includes:allyl sulfides (onions, leeks, and garlic), carotenoids (fruits, carrots), flavonoids (fruits, vegetables), polyphenols (tea, grapes).  

Hormonal action - Isoflavones, found in soy, imitate human estrogens and help to reduce menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis.Stimulation of enzymes - Indoles, which are found in cabbages, stimulate enzymes that make the estrogen less effective and thus couldreduce the risk for breast cancer. Other phytochemicals, which interfere with enzymes, are protease inhibitors (soy and beans), terpenes (citrus fruits and cherries). 

Interference with DNA replication - Saponins found in beans interfere with the replication of DNA cell, thereby preventing themultiplication of cancer cells. Capsaicin, found in hot peppers, protects DNA from carcinogens. 

Physical action - Some phytochemicals bind physically to cell walls thereby preventing the adhesion of pathogens to human cell walls. Proanthocyanidins are responsible for the anti-adhesion properties of cranberry. Consumption of cranberries will reduce the risk of urinary tract infections and will improve dental health.  

Phytocemicals are naturally present in many foods but it is expected that through bioengineering new plants will be developed, which will ontain higher levels. This would make it easier to incorporate enough phytochemicals with our food. 


Moringaoleifera and Azadirachtaindica are plants(leave) are claimed to have a lot of economic value such as medicinal, nutritional and pesticidal values. These claims have not been clearly justified.This research and experiment is therefore centered on investigating, analyzing and justifying the claims made on these plants (leave). And also to know the chemical composition responsible for the Medicinal value of these plant (leave).  


i. Phytochemical anaylsis on the Moringaoleiferaand Azadiractaindica. In the other words, identify, isolate and quantify each phytochemical present in the plant material 

ii. To describe clearly the unit operation (Extraction process) used on these plant. 


To justify the claims made on these plants for its medicinal and economic values like moringaoleifera is responsible for curing malaria, reducing high blood pressure and reduces blood sugar and 

Azadirachtaindica is responsible curing fever,malaria, bacteria and fungi disease. 


The phytochemical analysis will be carried out only on the leaves of the plant under study. 

For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
+234 8093 423 853

Share This
  • Type: Project
  • Department: Chemical Engineering
  • Project ID: CNG0189
  • Price: ₦3,000 ($20)
  • Chapters: 5 Chapters
  • Pages: 65 Pages
  • Methodology: Scientific
  • Reference: YES
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 776
Payment Instruction
Bank payment for Nigerians, Make a payment of ₦ 3,000 to

Account Name Obiaks Business Venture
Account Number 0211074565

Bitcoin: Make a payment of 0.0003 to


btc wallet
Copy to clipboard Copy text

Leave a comment...


    Type Project
    Department Chemical Engineering
    Project ID CNG0189
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 65 Pages
    Methodology Scientific
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

    Related Works

    PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS ON MORINGA OLEIFERA AND AZADRICHTA INDICA LEAVES ABSTRACT Studies were conducted to determine the phytochemicasl present in moringa olrifera and Azadrichta indica leaves. Leaves for this work were washed, room dried ground to powder. The ground leave for both sample were soaked in four different solvent; Ethanol, n-Hexane,... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens. These chemicals are produced by plants through primary or secondary metabolism (Breslin A,2017) . These work was done to determining the presence of phytochemicals such as Tannins, Saponin, Alkaloids,... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Moringa Oleifera seed and leaves used in Eastern Nigeria have an impressive range of multipurpose medicinal uses with high nutritional values. However, to be clinically used, more scientific data are needed. The aim of this present study is to extract... Continue Reading
    CHAPTER ONE 1.0     INTRODUCTION                                                                     1 1.1     Aims/Objectives of the... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Comparative assessment of the phytochemical content and antioxidant potential of Azadirachta indica (neem) and Parquetina nigrescens (bullock) is the aim of this study. In order to achieve this, both plants were harvested from the botanical garden, University of Ibadan. The leaves were removed from the stem, washed with running water to... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Azadirachta indica, commonly known as Neem, has attracted worldwide prominence in recent years as a cynosure of modern medicine owing to its wide range of medicinal properties. This study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical properties and antioxidant activity of the multi-solvent (methanol, ethanol and hexane) extracts of the... Continue Reading
    C HAPTER ONE 1.0     INTRODUCTION The use of the leaves, stem and bark of the plants for medicinal purposes is an age long practice. Also in the modern times, and among civilized people, the medicinal use of herbs and shrubs in the treatment of so many diseases both physiological and otherwise is an important breakthrough in pharmocognacy.... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The primary objective of this study is to identify the most appropriate herbal plants for the removal of contaminants from water and also to develop a water treatment kit at an affordable cost for the society.  Moringa Oleifera was chosen for this study, the effectiveness of these herbs in the removal of fluoride from water shows that... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Most people living in rural communities, have no access to good domestic water for consumption. The inhabitants depends on rain water, well water and sometimes surface water for consumption. Improper treatment of water gotten from these sources, can lead to the spread of water borne diseases, because, sometimes the water gotten from these... Continue Reading
    This study focused on elucidating the anatomy of Moringa oleifera seed and developing an efficient and cost effective procedure for using Moringa oleifera seeds to produce natural coagulant for use in drinking water treatment. The study investigates processing Moringa oleifera seeds to concentrate the bio-active constituents which have coagulation... Continue Reading
    Call Us
    Get this work
    whatsappWhatsApp Us