The government of Kenya is committed to the goal of Education for All. However, the problem of access to Primary school education undermines this achievement. Any factor that interferes with the learning not only undermines the education goal but also hampers the growth and development of children. For this reason, there is a need to identify the factors that contribute to low enrolment in Primary schools in Kenya. The purpose of this study was to find out the impact of urbanization on access to education in Public Primary Schools in Homa-bay Municipality. It was justified by the fact that educational situation in Kenya for slum children is poor as has been documented in several studies and the Kenyan government. The independent variable for the study was urbanization and was measured by cultural diversity, income disparity and high population density. The dependent variable of the study was access measured by enrolment and retention. The objectives of the study were to find out ways in which income disparity affects school enrolment, determine how cultural diversity affects enrolment in primary schools, to determine how population density affects pupils’ enrolment and to determine ways through which enrolment in public primary schools can be improved in order to minimize the negative impact on education development. The target population comprised seventeen Head teachers, 289 teachers and 10,429 pupils. The study employed the descriptive survey design from which a total of 390 pupils, fifteen Head teachers, and sixty teachers were randomly sampled to participate in the study. The study used questionnaires for Data collection. A pilot study was carried in one school in order to identify ambiguities and ensure equal participation of the respondents in the development of final questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered to the pupils, teachers and head teachers. Data was analyzed using quantitative and qualitative techniques. Quantitative technique involved the use of descriptive statistics such as frequencies, modes, means and percentages. Qualitative data was analyzed by organizing them in similar themes and tallying the number of similar responses after which the data was reported thematically in line with the objective of the study. The results of the study indicated that a combination of intertwined factors such as economic disparity, cultural diversity and population density closely contributed to enrollment and retention in public primary schools. It also revealed that there were measures to increase access in the schools within the municipality and this included the Girl mentorship group. Based on the findings it was recommended that the government should partner with parents and the school community in developing school infrastructure to meet the needs of the ever growing number of pupils in public schools. Guidance and counseling services should be initiated in schools; government should employ more teachers to cater for the increasing demand for primary education. The study suggested that a study on other categories of schools in different municipalities in the country in a comparative manner should be done. It was also suggested that a study on other divisions in the county be done to find out if similar factors affect enrollment in primary schools.