One of the many problem facing the business community has been the problem of integrating the objectives of the employees with that of the organization for the achievement of the organization objectives.
Even when such an integration has been made there should be a dear method or system of measurement of the contribution of employees to the organizational achievement. Organization that practice management by objectives seem to be on the positive threshold of solving this problem.
Management by objective (MBO) is a systematic approach to managing an organization practicing the basic management functions of planning organization staffing leading and controlling.
Management by objective is a result oriented all functional area (LOPA energy co.ltd). the distinguishing characteristic of management by objective (MBO) is its emphasis on results achievement of objective. It is based on a concept of human motivation. Accordingly it places emphases on the involvement of the employee in planning directing and controlling aspects of the job what will be done when will it be dome and how will it be done?
The underlying belief is that this involvement of employee lead to commitment and if an employee is committed he can be directed to perform in manner that positively contributes to the achievement of organizational objects. The MBO afford both the superiors and subordinates the opportunity to sit together and jointly identify common goals of enterprise define individual major areas of responsibility term of the results expected of him and use these measures as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of it misers. Paul Hersey et al (1988) this leads to the four basic component of the MBO system.
a)Setting performance objectives and standards for their accomplishment
b)Developing action plans
c)Coaching and counseling
d)Annual performance appraisal
Management by objective should guard against misdirection of common organizational goal by various functional managers. Peter Durker (1981). The in depth in the assumption is that organization that is well vested and excellence among its managers. By jointly setting objectives between and the subordinate a mutual understanding results. Employee now accept the responsibility and works out action. Plan to meet performance standard set for the specific job. MBO has psychological background. In order to understand and benefit from MBO all employees who are includes in it must understand the psychological principles on which it is based. When MBO is introduced into a company a training course is therefore given which explains Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Hertzberg’s theory of motivational emphasize and Mc Gregor’s theory X and Y these emphasize the employees increase in job satisfaction when he feels a sense of achievement & involvement in his work. Unless MBO is carried out in this spirit it because merely another method by which subordinates can be controlled. Graham (1985)
For a business to grow responsibility is the only thing that will serve. Druker (1981).
Acceptance of responsibility removes fear and spur up employees with an internal self motivation for performance. When employee are motivated productivity increases.
Through management by objectives (MBO) responsible worker emerge there is the contention that (MBO) brought employee satisfaction. Nwachukwu (1988). Employees contribution is recognized and rewarded through job performance appraisal system which is an ingredient of management by objective (MBO)
One of the major problem contorting the Niger civil service are intangible 50 are their result that is to serve the people. This sound ambiguous and cannot easily be subjected to any quantitative and qualitative education. To determine when a civil service has become result oriented entails having specific limited dearly defined target to be accomplished within a given time Nwachukwu (1988).
Management by objective enable prudent utilization of resources setting of prionties and time as Druker (1977) puts it only its target and defined can resource be allocated to their attainment priorties and dragline be set and somebody be held accountable for result”
Employees can be denominated if an employees perceives that his contribution has not been equitable compensated rewarded or recognized.
Coaching and counseling are used to guide subordinates to be on the objective track.
In summary management by objective in the recent years has been one of the most striking developments in the managerial cut of getting result in an organization. Significant number of firms small enterprise to giant public corporation report accomplishment of a most astonishing and profitable nature. When MBO is correctly applied it enhance work simplification equitable compensation better utilization of equipment starting a new business inventory control and organization clarity (Mali 1972)
It is clear from the vast body of information and knowledge developing around (MBO) concept a dynamic management way of life is steadily maturing and will remain with as for sometime to come. This is informed by the fact that management practitioners themselves are increasingly concerned with improving ther own effectiveness with the use of management by objective ( MBO). The researcher work will examine the impact MBO on the performance of the company LOPA Enugu Co.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of table
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3Purpose of the study
1.4Scope of the study
1.6Significance of study
1.7Limitation of the study
1.8Definition of terms
2.1Meaning of management
2.2Porter lower model
2.3Setting of objectives
2.4The MBO process
2.5Advantage of management by objective
3.2Area of study
3.3Population of the study
3.4Sampling and sampling procedure
3.5Instrument for data collection
3.6Validation for the instrument
3.7Reliability of the instrument
3.8Method of data collection
3.9Method of data analysis
Date presentation and analysis
Summary of results
5.0 Discussion recommendation & conclusion
5.1Discussion of findings
5.3Implication of the research findings
5.5 Suggestions for further research
5.6Reason why ii is GOD to apply MBO