ABSTRACT This study is an assessment of the impact of budget implementation in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – Related programmes in Anambra State, with the sole objective of examining how the state’s policy and spending autonomy significantly enhance the achievement of the MDGs – related programmes. It is based on the above objective that the study hypothesized that if there is effective implementation of budget in Anambra State, then there is the likelihood of achieving the MDGs – related programmes in the State. Another hypothesis of the study was that the spending pattern of the state negatively affect achievement of MDGs – related programmes in the state. In the course of the study, we applied descriptive research methodology in making use of primary and secondary data collection techniques. For the primary source, In-depth Individual Interviews (IDIs) was used. Purposive sampling technique was used because MDGs are sector-specific from where a sample size of 250 was drawn. These were the core leadership of ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs) of the State. In the analysis of the data collected, appropriate statistical techniques were adopted in the study to test the study’s hypotheses. Some of these statistical techniques were percentages, correlation coefficient and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). The use of these methods in analyzing the study’s x objectives and hypotheses give rise to the findings of the study. The findings border on the fact that the state’s budget implementation has significantly positive correlation with the MDGs – related programmes of the state in education and health sectors but more of the achievement was in the later and that myriad of factors among which was that the state lacked strong institutional framework needed to effectively mobilize and utilize public resources for effective service delivery for the MDGs. It is from these findings and conclusion that the study made some suggestions on how to improve public spending for effective and efficient delivery of MDGs – related programmes. One of the proffered solution includes the need for institutional capacity building in Nigerian states. With these suggestions properly implemented, the study believes that, the 2015 target could be met.