EVALUATION OF THE ROLE OF THE INTERNET IN ELEVATING COMMUNICATION EFFICIENCY IN NIGERIA
The essence of this research work was to evaluation of the role of the interne in elevating communication efficiency in Nigeria. It is not an attempt to know whether or not the internet has penetrated Nigeria, but a critical assessment of the role of the internet in promoting an effective communication in Nigeria in the least five years.
The objectives of the study is therefore
1. To analysis the impact of the internet as a communication
technology in Nigeria in the least five years.
2. To ascertain the level of the internet usage in Nigeria
3. T o find out some of the hindrances to the usage of the
internet as a means of communication.
4. T o suggest the possible way of improving internet services in
Both primary and secondary data were used, in order to accomplish the purpose of research. Some research questions were formulated based on the following objectives, and questionnaire comprising the statement s from the research questions were prepared as well. Interviews as a primary date source, textbooks, journals, and on line seminars as secondary sources.
At the end, some of the major findings from the analysis are
1. That the internet has been a great facilitator of communication
efficiency in Nigeria.
2. That Nigeria internet usage is fairly okay when compared to its
usage in the western world.
3. That computer illiteracy, ignorance, poor telecommunication
services, overcharging, constant power outage, were identified
as some of the hindrances to internet usage in Nigeria.
Finally, it was observed that the prospect of internet usage in Nigeria is very bright in terms of achieving communication efficiency in the years to come, if only Government and private institution will provide the needed infrastructure, training, legal and regulatory frame work that will foster internet use in Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of research problem
1.3 Objective of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Research Hypothesis
1.7 Scope of the study
1.8 Limitations of the Study
1.9 Theoretical frame work
1.10 Definition of terms
2.1 Source of Literature
2.2 The Review of relevant Literature
2.3 Summary of Literature Review.
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area of Study
3.3 Research Population
3.4 Sample Size
3.5 Sample Techniques
3.6 Instrument of Data Collection
3.7 Method of Data Collection
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
3.9 Expected Result
DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Data presentation and Analysis
4.2 Analysis of Research Question/Hypothesis
4.3 Discussion of the Results
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The internet which represents a strong fusion of computing and communication technologies, has recorded an outstanding growth in the past few years of its existence. While this may be attributed to the recent advance in both technologies, the main driving force seems however to be the general demand for better and faster information management system. This singular factor has steered computing to its height presently in the area of communication.
Communication as it may is the most popular internet activity which impact cannot be overemphasis. In view of the fact that communication by its very nature; especially in this Jet age is the product of internet. The various complex electronic advances made under the planning of some aspects of communication are nothing but Internet technology at work. Therefore, whatever growth to be recorded in communication is a reflection of advancement in new information superhighway (Deusch land, 2000, p: 22)
To critically examine the role of the internet in elevating communication efficiency in Nigeria, there is need to know that in the very beginning, human interaction cum communication where limited to ting hamlets where population began to increase and spread all over the surface of the earth, reaching out to people in divert area, it become a near impossibility. Before now, factors like geographical isolation, low level of technology and unawareness of the outside world among other things combined to tractate the process of communication. Today, things have changed. The internet has revolutionized human communication to the point that one can easily be in touch with some on in a distance land in a matter of seconds. This means that the internet has weakened the apparent geographical and technological factors that tend to limit human communication. However, the entire epoch of Nigerian society is regrettable painful to all level of communication efficiency in this modern information age because, the country still limp behind in terms of internet in the world. While, in some countries like America, Germany and Britain, internet evolved and simultaneously entered into their everyday lives with a dizzying speed and a flurry of few development high speed access. And the new ways of getting services, graphic, rich interface, the internet has become a part of their everyday activities. Thus, the stage in their societies has gone beyond the crude oral communication, the ancient telephone and outing postal communication, the obstacle printing press. The net technology such as the e mail, world wide web, the interface, mobile system, and computer improved services have become part and parcel of their daily lives, either in the pursuit of their business, inclination and fastening of symphony of social relationship and brotherhood with other. Currently, the Africa internet market environment seems to be the fastest internet environment in the world. However, the infrastructure which permits rapid long term expansion of the internet is still lacking in Africa. And Nigeria just like the least of other African nations still have the traditional causes of underdevelopment such as lack of computers, overcharging by the internet service providers at work. Also, cost of equipment, software and connecting fees is just too high in Nigeria. Paul McAuluy (2001, p:12), submits that “the technical apartheid “continues” as feared.
Although, Nigeria is currently rated one of the highest internet users in Africa, there is still much to be done in terms of internet coverage or services in Nigeria, which is mostly found among the educated urban dwellers, the rural areas and some urban cities are yet to have access to the internet.
When used the words of lee (2006, p:4 ), which submits that “the power of web is in its universality access by everyone irrespective of their location, background and disability is an essential aspect”. Judging Nigeria situation, as regards its communication efficiency, it position in the third millennium, it deems it possible to say that the social, political and cultural factors in the country do not permit improvement in communication through the internet. The hackneyed and abysmal mediocrity and stark illiteracy that have continued to thrive in this nation, has given no opportunity for creativity, skill and experience, research and other things capable of engendering positivism in the information environment of this country.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS
Despite the level of internet awareness in Nigeria, the country still limps on the slow lane in terms of usage of the internet. This has been a major problem towards elevating communication efficiency in Nigeria. According to ICT, Telecom and internet usage in Nigeria, [2009, p:9], “Nigeria currently has 40 internet service providers [ISP] which has been ascertained and licensed by Nigeria communication commission said to be having one 1% market penetration, and 50 other companies providing fixed telephone services contributing only one quarter of its estimated market penetration in Nigeria”, (retrieved from www.startupniger.com.on 6th Sept 2011). And going by the meaning of communication “share commonness”, as coined by the Latin word “communiz”, suffice me to say that a country like Nigeria with estimated population of about one hundred and fifty million people and having only twenty three million internet users nationwide amounting to about 16% of its population, which are only urban based, is under represented in terms of internet usage worldwide. This is because, communication technology according to Busbay [1998, p: 9] “must be accessible to the common persons in the society before, it could be regarded as a mass medium”. Also lee, [2006, p: 4] submits that, “the power of web is in its universality, accessibility to everyone regardless of their locations, background and disability is an essential aspect”. Going by these, one can say that Nigeria is still backward in terms of internet accessibility especially in the rural areas. However, this statement is invalid until it is proven beyond any reasonable doubt. It is therefore, the main objective of this study, to evaluate the impacts of the internet in communication efficiency in Nigeria, and as well find out some of the hindrances to the accessibility and usage of the internet as means of communication in Nigeria, and proffer a possible solution on how to improve the services of ISPs in Nigeria, so as to enhance internet usage in Nigeria.
1.4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study is no doubt very enormous that it is better described as a revolutionary study into an entire new age of information technology and dissemination which has also been known as communication revolution millennium. The study therefore promises to be of great benefits to the following.
1. To the students and future researches, it will serve as harvest of knowledge and discovery of hidden, silent ideas about internet communication culture in Nigeria. It is axiomatic to posit that this study will ensure the researchers of not only knowledge, but the aspiration, zeal and to explore more horizons in this virgin topic.
2. To the society, organizations and her agencies, it will not only help them to see the need to imbibe the internet culture into their environment, but will equally enable them give support, incentives and motivations towards a sustainability of this eventual ideas and communication agenda.
3. The beginners in communication industry will see the internet as effective, efficient communication tool. And help them make the necessary use of the internet in every area of their lives. Finally, this study will help to find the solution to Nigerian’s sick movement in the technological race.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
In other to examine, evaluate, and analyze the role of the internet in elevating communication efficiency in Nigeria, the following questions will serve as a guide.
1. Has the internet has helped in elevating communication efficiency in Nigeria.
2. Do you think that the internet usage in Nigeria is okay?
3. What are the hindrances to the internet services in Nigeria?
4. Do you think that the internet services in Nigeria can be improved?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Hi: The internet has helped in elevating communication efficiency in Nigeria.
Ho: The internet has not helped in elevating communication efficiency in Nigeria.
H2: The internet usage in Nigeria is okay.
Ho: The internet usage in Nigeria is not okay.
H3: There are hindrances to the internet services in Nigeria.
Ho: There are no hindrances to the internet services in Nigeria.
H4: Internet services in Nigeria can be improved
Ho: Internet services in Nigeria cannot be improved.
1.7 THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is very wide, if it has to be carried out nationwide, but for the purpose of this study, the study will only cover the activities of the internet in elevating communication efficiency in Enugu metropolis.
1.9 THEORTICAL FRAME WORK
The use of this theory was however deemed very important and relevant to the research topic because, technological determinism theory postulated that technology is the basics for all human activity. Roesmith, (2002, p: 2), sees technology “as the key governing force in the society. Williams in the same Roesmith (2002, p:2), submits that, “technology changes the way people think and how they interact with others
The technological determinism theory was propounded by an American Sociologist Thorstein Veblen, in 1887-1929, and was later popularized by wood in 1960. When he explained technology such as the media,” shape the way individual think, feel and how society is organized and operates”. Marshall Mcluhan catapulted wood into the spote light through, obviously, the media. He sees the determinism value of technology in communication field. Thus submits that “communication evolves and advances, so too does human lives shaped and cultural changes take place”. With this claims, he glamorized the media, later divided the history of the media technology into four epochs, such as the tribal epoch, literal epoch, the printing and the electronics epoch, and the most recent which is the new technology e.g. the internet epoch.
Wood state that though the television still places itself among the world’s most popular and most influential form of media, the internet technology has far gone beyond the linear form of thinking, as hypertext capabilities allows for many sources to be linked to one another, making massive amount of information easily accessible. The immediacy of news has its rinks of authenticity as the speed the internet is capable of allowing no time for checking. Also people who are in touch with the new communication technology like internet, has the tendencies to multitask, doing a few things at once. Wood (2004, p: 3) submits that, “it causes their attention span to decrease as images on computer screen shifts.
When technology determinism theory in communication field is incorporated into the influence of the internet which is undoubtedly the most current electronics media epoch, moving from the single directional properties of television, to multimedia conveniences, not only is the internet able to transfer information across the global, it is capable of enabling other transactions such as shopping and banking. This arising form of conveniences for humans, affects our lifestyle as we have less reason to leave the comfort of our home. This in effect, supports the determinism theory.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
In the process of conducting and finding presentation of this study, there are some technical words that needed to be defined for better understanding.
EVALUATION: to judge how good, useful, or successful something is.
ROLE: Function that a period or what a thing typically have or is expected to have.
COMMUNICATION: The process by which people exchange information or express their thought and feeling.
INTERNET: A computer system that allows millions of users around the world to exchange information.
ELEVATING: to lift something up or to lift something up to a higher position. Making you feel interested in an intelligent or moral subject.
EFFICIENCY: The quality of doing something well and effectively, without wasting time, money and energy.
INFORMATION SUPERHIGHWAY: A term used to describe the movement of information.
DIGITAL DIVIDE: A term that describes the gap in modern technology between the developing and developed world.
EVALUATION: A critical assessment of how useful the internet has being in communication system, in order to have an opinion about it.
ROLE: The Conceptual definition Conceptual definition is the function or contribution which aid to make something successful.
COMMUNICATION: The process by which people exchange information or express their thoughts and feeling, through a common system symbols.
INTERNET: it is a global network of computers network that is available to everyone who has PC and means of connecting it.
ELEVATING: uplifting communication efficiency or making is people more interest in using the internet for communication.
EFFICIENCY: Is achieving the communication goals with minimum resources and time.
INFORMATION SUPERHIGHWAY: It is an interconnectivity of fiber optic line connecting cities and people within and outside the immediate environment through millions of computer solely to exchange electronic messages and have face to face conversation.
DIGITAL DIVIDE: This occurs when advances in modern technologies in information and communication like the internet, are not reflected in the lives of a people, usually privilege and underprivileged.
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