COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AS A TOOL FOR CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF NIFOR, BENIN CITY. ABSTRACT Conflict is an inevitable social phenometion which affects every strata of human endeavor be it individual group or communities. Infact, human interaction among one another is centered on struggle for economic resources which is the root causes (s) of conflict. Conflict as social menace can be between an individual’s social group or communities over public good. Therefore, various mechanisms has been put in place for the resolution of these conflicts such as litigation, arbitration, arbitration, negotiation, plea-bargain and also collective bargaining which is the focus of this paper. This research therefore captures collective bargaining as a mechanism for conflict resolution in a organization with particular reference to the Nigerian institute for oil palm research (NIFOR) as case study. The methodology of study is both qualitative and quantitative in nature, i.e both primary and secondary sources of data as well as other relevant sources. The research concludes by suggesting some plausible recommendations that will be relevant to both the individual, group (s) organization and the society at large knowing fully well that conflicts in an organization if not properly managed may mar the fortunes of an organization, hence, collective bargaining is a vital tool for managing such conflict between the employees and management. TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER ONE: Back Ground Of Study - - - - - - Statement Of The Problem - - - - - - Objectives Of The Study - - - - - - Research Questions/Hypotheses - - - - - 1.5 Significance of The Study - - - - 1.6 Scope and Delimitation of Study - - - - - 1.7 Conceptual Clarifications - - - - 1.8 Organization Of Chapters - - - CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND FRAMEWORK 2.1 Introduction - - - - - - 2.2 Concept of Collective Bargaining and Communication - - - 2.3 The Development Of Collective Bargaining System - 2.4 Roles of Collective Bargaining - - - - - 2.5 Problems in Collectives Bargaining - - - - - 2.6 Brief History of Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design - - - - - 3.2 The Population Of The Study - - - - - 3.3 Sample Size And Sampling Technique - - - - - 3.4 Method Of Data Collection - - - 3.5 Instrument of Data Collection - - - - 3.6 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - CHAPTER FOUR: DATE PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION 4.1 Introduction - - - - - 4.2 Presentation - - - - - - - 4.3 Interpretation - - - - - - CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION 5.1 Summary - - - - - - - 5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 5.3 Findings - - - - - 5.4 Recommendation - - - - - - BIBLIOGRAPHY- - - - - - APPENDIX - - - - - - LIST OF TABLES Table 4.2.1 - - - - Table 4.2.2 - - - - - - Table 4.2.3 - - - - - Table 4.2.4 - - - - - - Table 4.2.5 - - - - - - Table 4.2.6 - - Table 4.2.7 - - - CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACK GROUND OF STUDY Conflict is a social phenomenon which is exist between individuals,groups or association and also between status across national boundaries. Conflict is bound to occur as individuals compete over scare resources. Also,in an organization where employees and management work together overachieving organizational goals and objectives, there is bound for conflict toexist‘ as employees may want to register their interest as against theorganization goals and objectives. Conflict is an inevitable phenomenon in an organization and one ofthe means through which employees relate with management and participatein rule and decision making in work organizations is collective bargaining.ln any organization each employee has a separate work contract with theemployer. But work is social. An enterprise of even moderate size organizesand integrates its tasks so closely that every job is to some degreeinterdependent with all the others. No individual could bargain separately forjob changes or conditions ofemployment that different much from anyoneelse’s without affecting those of other more or less directly; thus individual bargaining would be ineffective and, even if it could be effective, would be disruptive. When employees feel the need for changes in their individual work contracts, they have to seek a general review of the conditions of employment. They get be, collective pressure on the employer”. ln order to act collectively over the course of time and toward consistent ends, employees form unions. In many countries, including Nigeria, collective bargaining through unions is the dominant form of employee participation for a wider range of issues (Begin and Beal, l989: l27). According toIjewere (2010289), collective bargaining is based on the principle that workers have a right to negotiate the terms of contract with their employers, a right which employers themselves recognize nowadays. He further opined that when there is agreement between management and workers representative (union) on such matters as hours of work, fringe benefits, pay, discipline etc it will be binding on both parties, but if there is disagreement on such matters, the differences may be resolved through mediation or arbitration. He also added that management and workers’ union are interdependent in achieving each other objectives, hence there is need for cooperation and compromise. For an organization to attain her set goals or objectives, ﬂow of information or information or communication between and among the various parties in the system is important. It has been observed that interpersonal communication holds together an organization and that organization’s objective cannot be achieved without effective communication between management and union (employee representatives) since an organization is a stable system of persons (management and labour) who have agreed to work together to attain a common goal. This research there seek to examine the role of collective bargaining in conﬂict resolution in Nigeria using the Nigerian institute for oil palm research as case study. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The dearth of viable means of conflict resolution in an Organization has necessitated the need for collective Bargaining as a means of resolving all forms of industrial disputes between management and union (employees) conflict is an inevitable phenomenon is any organization either between employees or between employees and management over conflict of interest but through collective Bargaining. In the management of Union relations, collective Bargaining is a vital tool for the promotion and maintenance of peace and harmonious relations. According to Ijewere (2010191), collective bargaining introduces a unique kind of transactional relationship between two institutions, the union and the management. Also, corroborating the above fact, the manufacturers Association of Nigeria (Man) says collective bargaining is a method by which management and labour union may explore each others problem and view point and develop a framework of employment relations within which both parties may carry on their mutual benefits (lmhabekhai and Oyitso, 2001100). One may say that collective bargaining has allow of events that touches on reconciling the demands and requirements of both parties (management and union) at the work place. Collective bargaining is assume to have a broader social purpose including minimizing labour unrest and facilitating the flow of work activities (ljewere, 2010192). However, the success of any collective bargaining depends on the administrative lifestyle of management and the union in concern and how effective and efficient such agreement is communicated to the parties involved towards reaching a consensus. For instance, in NIFOR, both management and union collectively bargain for the conditions of service such as hours of Work, fringe beneﬁts, pay, discipline, promotion as well as enhanced condition of service and Work beneﬁts. This management union relations as a collective alternative to industrial disputes is responsible for the growth and development recorded by the institute. It is imperative therefore for other organizations to take a cue from the Nigerian Institute for Oil palm Research (NIFOR) in its quest to resolve all forms of industrial disputes through collective bargaining. 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of this study among other things include: To examine the impact of collective bargaining in resolving industrial crises To ascertain if there is a relationship between collective bargaining and conﬂict resolution in Nigeria using NIFOR as case study. To determine the role of collective bargaining in the management of(employer- employee) relations. To examine the impact of collective bargaining in the management of industrial dispute with particular references to NIFOR Benin- City. RESEARCH QUESTIONS/HYPOTHESES Does collective bargaining affect the relationship between management and labour unions? Does effective communication enhance the outcome of collective bargaining? Has collective bargaining resolved any industrial disputes in NIFOR? How effective is collective bargaining in the resolution of management- union disputes? HYPOTHESES H0 1: There is no significant relationship between collective bargaining conflict resolution in NIFOR H0 2: There is a significant relationship between collective bargaining and conﬂict resolution in NIFOR. 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This research is significant in the following ways It will suggest ways of promoting peace and effective communication between management and union (employees) It will contribute to existing sources of knowledge Lastly, it will serve as problem solving mechanism for management in relations to union demands and also, assist policy makers, managers as well as employers of labour in the formulation of industrial dispute policies as well as management leadership style in an organization. It will management and union (employees) develop a mechanism of resolving industrial disputes through arbitration, collective bargaining and other forms of conﬂict resolution such as alternative dispute resolution. It will help management and union (employees) work harmoniously towards achieving organizational growth and development. 1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF STUDY This study is limited in scope to the management and members of staff of the Nigerian institute for oil palm research (NIFOR) Benin- City. It also examine in scope how collective bargaining has been used as a methodof desired effect it has produced within the organization. However, the anticipated limitation of this study includes: Poor attitude of respondents (management and union) to questions posed to them through the questionnaire due to organizational secrecy. Poor funding for an expensive and sensitive research of this nature. Time constraints to conduct interviews and administer questionnaire to respondents However, the researcher has made efforts to surmount this limitations so as not to undermine the outcome of this research. 1.7 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATIONS The following concepts used in this research were further defined this: Collective bargaining Management Industrial relations Communication Conflict resolution Collective bargaining: According to Tredgold (1965), collective bargainingis a strategy preferred by employees whenever they perceive their economic Power would be greater through collective action than through individual bargaining with employers. The international labour organization (ILO) define collective bargaining as “negotiations about working conditions and terms of employment between an employer or group of hand and one or more employers (organization) on one hand and one or more representatives works with a view to reaching agreement (Ijewere, 2010:91). Management: A body of individuals saddled with the responsibility of running the affairs of an organization. Also, it can be defined as a collective body of person saddled with responsibility of harnessing both human and materials resources together in achieving organizational growth and development. (Odiase, 2012:14) Industrial Relations: According to Adiase (2012:8) industrial relations is the complex forms of relationship, interactions, communication that exist between management and union (employees) foundation in which industrial harmony is built upon. Communication: communication consists of all the processes by which information is transmitted and received. It is an instrument of social interaction which helps to understand ourselves in other to keep in touch with others (Graham a, 1992 in Okoh, 2005:235). Conflict Resolution: According to Odiase (2012:12) conflict resolution is a mechanism through which industrial unrests or disputes are resolved. It is an intergral part of management function in an organization. Conflict reolutionseeks alternative means through which management- union strife could be resolved. Conflicts resolution methods includes. Collective bargaining Arbitration Alternative dispute resolution Litigation etc. 1.8 ORGANIZATION OF CHAPTERS This research is chapterized as follows: Chapter One: This essentially contains the introduction and background of the study, statement of problems as well as objectives and significance of study. It also entails the scope and limitation of study. Chapter Two: This chapter is concerned about the review of relevant literatures as well as the theoretical framework of analyses. Chapter Three: This is the methodology of research. It contains the research design, population of study, sample size and sampling technique as well as the method and instrument of data collection and analyses. Chapter Four: This chapter is the presentation, interpretation and analyses of data using the simple percentage method and also text to research hypothesis. While Chapter Five: Concludes the research process, it summarizes entire research while drawing conclusions and prescribing some possible recommendations.
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