PROBLEMS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: POWER HOLDING COMPANY OF NIGERIA (PHCN) IN BENIN CITY, EDO STATE CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY It is not possible to have good human relations without communication. On the other hand, effective communication is required not only for human relations but for a good and successful business (Spaho, 2011). In practice there is no organization without communication. There are organizations with bad communication and these cannot be considered successful organizations. Managers spend the majority of their time communicating in several forms: meeting, face-to–face discussion, letters, emails etc. Also more and more employees realize that communication is a very important part of their work because a lot of work activities are based on teamwork among workers in different functional groups. This is the reason why communication has become more important in companies. According to Richmond, McCroskey, and McCroskey, (2005), organizational communication as a scientific discipline is not new but recently it has been recognized as a field of academic study. The reasons for this are needs and concerns of modern business because managers of new age must be good speakers in order to build trust among their employees which will later result in confidence in the company. HRS (1) The need for thoughtful, effective communication in the workplace is paramount. Seldom does an employee work in absolute isolation, instead, workers interact with consumers, peers, and management on a daily basis; this makes communication an essential skill for today's employees (Matin, Jandaghi, Karimi and Hamidizadeh, 2010) Today's employers look for quality skills in communication, critical thinking, and problem-solving, not just the ability to complete job duties (Un ange passé, 2008). Consequently in the absence of effective communication, organizational goals will succumb to individualistic and personal goals (Magnus, 2009). Effective communication skills are essential to social interaction, and to the building and maintenance of all relationships. Poor communication skills can cause irrevocable damage to relationships; affecting productivity, satisfaction, performance, morale, trust, respect, self confidence, and even physical health (Un ange passé, 2008). In any organization, the success of achieving its goals depends largely on the manager's communication ability and skills (Magnus, 2009). In an era of apparent constant change and “erosion of corporate loyalty” communication skills in managers are vital to promoting employee attachment to the organization (Brunette and Farr-Wharton, 2004). However, researchers have paid little attention to the communication skills that managers need to enhance their subordinates’ commitment to the organization (Bambacas and Patrickson, 2008). In the light of the above, the researcher intends to investigate the problems of effective communication in the public sector. STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM The primary purpose of any organization is to accomplish goals objectives and since the degree of accomplishment depends totally on the quality of its members. Therefore, it has to be concerned with the availability and improvement of effective communication. To this extent, for an organization to be successful, it should ensure that there is an adequate supply of effective communication skills. Following the growing technological changes and complexity in our industries as well as social factors, it then becomes necessary that organizations should train and develop their personnel to cope with ever increasing job requirement posed by fast technological social changes. Most employees lack effective communication and utilization of human relations and as a result have been experiencing a decline in productivity and failure in the achievement of their goals and achievement. Against this backdrop, the following research questions are raised; Is there relationship between effective communication and the performance of public sector? Do messages delay can be problem of effective communication in the public sector? Does lack of communication equipment constitute problem of effective communication in the public sector? RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The broad objective of this study is to examine the problems of effective communication in the public sector. The specific objectives are: To find out if there is relationship between effective communication and the performance of public sector. To investigate if messages delay can be problem of effective communication in the public sector. To verify whether lack of communication equipment constitute problem of effective communication in the public sector. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS In pursuance of the set objectives of this study, the following hypotheses were drawn for testing. Hypothesis I Ho: There is no relationship between effective communication and the performance of public sector. H1: There is a relationship between effective communication and the performance of public sector. Hypothesis II Ho: Messages delay cannot be problem of effective communication in the public sector. H1: Messages delay can be problem of effective communication in the public sector. Hypothesis III Ho: Lack of communication equipment does not constitute problem of effective communication in the public sector. H1: Lack of communication equipment constitute problem of effective communication in the public sector. SCOPE OF THE STUDY The research work is to examine the problems of effective communication in the public sector. The population of the study is entire public sector in the Nigeria, while the sample size is restricted to staff of Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) in Benin City, Edo State. Geographically, the study will be specifically restricted to Benin City, Edo State. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This research work on its conclusion, together with whatever solution or findings that may arise, will prove useful to some particular group of persons or otherwise for various reasons in accordance with their varying needs. Beneficiaries Stakeholders: This study will be important and beneficial to stakeholders of an organization to know the problem of effective communication in the public sector. The Government: It will acquaint the government of the problem of effective communication in the public sector and how it should be properly managed. The public: This study will help to restore the lost confidence of the public as regard effective communication in the public sector. Academic/future researcher: Both academic and other future researchers in this similar subject matter will find it a useful source of learning and research. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY The problems encountered in the course of this research includes; Inadequate Study Materials: Research materials were of limited supply due to the practicality of the study. Where they were available; the cost involved in sourcing for them was very expensive. Lack of Access to Current Data: Most managements and staff of the establishment would not want to disclose important or relevant information about their organizations on this subject matter, except were such is permitted by law to be disclosed. Finance Cost: The cost involved in sourcing for the available materials and other necessary information was very high within the reach of the student researcher.