THE EFFECTS OF MANAGEMENT STYLES ON THE EFFICIENCY AND PERFORMANCE OF WORKERS IN GOVERNMENT OWNED ESTABLISHMENTS
(A CASE STUDY OF NIKE LAKE RESORT, ENUGU).
In many establishments, especially government-owned ones, it has been found that situations, which are inimical to the achievement of organizational goals, do usually exist.
These situations exist because of the kind of management styles being practiced in the establishments. Observations have shown that those at the helm of affairs in many of these establishments adopt the kind of management styles, which enhance the efficiency, and productivity level of the employees, while others adopt management styles, which hamper productivity and encourage inefficiency among workers. A closer look at some government-owned establishment reveal that the management style being practiced in them are characterized by favouritism, autocracy, inability to delegate job, poor communication with subordinates, inability to allow employees participate in decision making, inability to motivate workers for greater productivity.
This study takes a critical look at the effects of these management styles on the efficiency and performance of workers in government-owned establishments with particular reference to Nike Lake Resort, Enugu.In order to undertake this study, tables, simple percentages and absolute numbers were used to analyze the data collected for the study.
Several findings were made in this research among which is that the efficiency of workers is dependent on the cordial relationship existing between them and the management and also idea to encourage participation.
Based on the findings, the researcher made several recommendations and encouraged those at the helm of affairs to establish a cordial relationship with the employees and adopt a management style that will enhance the efficiency of the employees. Finally, this study is divided into five chapters. Each of these chapters was made very explicit in the main text of this study
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
1.1 Background of the Study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem.
1.3 Purpose of the Study.
1.4 Scope of the Study.
1.5 Research Questions.
1.6 Research Hypothesis.
1.7 Significance of the Study.
1.8 Limitations of the Study.
1.9 Definition of Terms.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE.
2.1 Concept and Definitions of Management.
2.2 Who is a Manager.
2.3 The Functions of a Manager.
2.4 Management by Objective.
2.5 Delegation of Responsibilities and Its Effects on Workers.
2.6 Motivation and Its Effects on Workers.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOLOGY.
3.1 Research Design.
3.2 Area of the Study.
3.3 Population of the Study.
3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedure.
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
3.6 Validation of the Instrument.
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument.
3.8 Method of Data Collection.
3.9 Method of Data Analysis.
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DATA INTERPRETATION.
4.1 Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.2 Testing of Hypothesis.
4.3 Summary of Results.
DISCUSSION ON RESULT FINDINGS.
5.1 Discussions on Findings.
5.3 Implications of the Research Findings.
5.5 Suggestions for Further Research.
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It is an established fact that the efficiency, effectiveness and the productivity level of workers in any organization are totally dependent to a great extent on how well the organization is managed.
In the contemporary times, man has always geared his efforts towards ensuring that the concept of management is not thrown to the whirlwinds, and he does this in order to enhance the chances of his organization enjoying optimal productivity.
Ejiofor defined management as a process of getting things done through and with people. Government-owned establishment is a place where the concept of management (especially good management) is a pre-requisite for effective and efficient performance of the workers. Sequel to this, the management style adopted in any unit of the government establishment affects the performances of the workers in that unit or department. This is because, when the manager or a leader in any unit is efficient and effective, the subordinates under his control are likewise. But where the reverse is the case, the end result is inefficiency, low productivity and poor performance.
There is no misgiving whatsoever in saying that government establishments are among the most important sectors of the nation’s economy given the fact that a major share of every state’s annual budget goes to the administration and general welfare of the workers in government-owned establishment. This gives credence to this testimony.
It is noted that productivity in government establishment (especially the Civil Service) has a kind of multiplier effect on the services and profit making potentials of all business enterprises. This is because if the government establishment performs sub-optimally, our health, education and general welfare must be adversely affected. The productivity level of even the private organizations as well would dwindle; their profit position would be very poor; social responsibilities of the business managers and entrepreneurs would be neglected: employees would be laid off and taxes stop flowing into the government coffers, and finally, contributions to the national growth are generally affected. Above all, inefficiency becomes the order of the day especially among the workers in government establishments.
To emphasize more on the effects of consequences of inefficiency to an organization, Terry stated, “an inefficient organization is the one that operates with waste and carelessness”. It does not make provision for work satisfaction and has no clear-cut lines on authority and responsibility. It does not allow the appropriate participation of workers in problem solving and gives no provision for security and status. This means that for government-owned establishment, the participation of both the employee and the management in decision-making as well as responsibility and authority is a sine qua non to operational efficiency. This will enable the employees have a sense of belonging within the establishment and makes them to avoid waste and carelessness. All these can be achieved if there is a good management style.
It is as a result of the above analogy that the researcher intends to take a critical look at a selected government establishment and find out the effects of the management style on the efficiency and performances of the workers in the organization.
1.1.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF NIKE LAKE RESORT, ENUGU
Hotel industry is a purely profit-oriented form of business organization that provides overnight lodging, provision of accommodation, restaurant services and other wide range of services to the general public. Until recently, this sector of the economy is presumed to be a relatively small business unit which required little capital outlay for its establishment and accordingly centres its operations virtually on the rendering of restaurant services. However, it is not surprising that this sector has developed into a dynamic and progressive profession following the increase in worldwide demand for its services in recent years. Its indispensability has been promoted most significantly by current expansion in commerce, industry and technology.
Nike Lake Resort is one of the biggest hotels in Enugu State of Nigeria, owned by the state government. This hotel was the brainchild of the former Anambra state governor Jim Nwobodo. It was during his regime that the foundation block of Nike Lake was laid. The hotel was officially commissioned on Saturday 6th
February 1988 by late General Sani Abacha, the chief of army staff during the tenure of Col. Robert Nnaemeka, the military governor of old Anambra state.
It is not far from the truth to state that Nike lake Hotel occupied an enviable state in the annals of hotel industry and tourism not only in the east of the Niger but also in Nigeria as a whole since its inception in 1988.
This magnificent edifice, which beautifies Nike Lake road, was a source of great income to Enugu state government and this was as a result of the great patronage accorded to it by travelers, tourist, and other innumerable guests.
However, the fortune of this hotel started to dwindle during the 1990’s because of inefficiency and mismanagement.
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It has been observed that government-owned establishments in Nigeria have been experiencing a lot of problems over the years. Many rational Nigerians are of the opinion that government-owned establishments have been performing below expectations. This observation is not far from the truth especially when one compares their performances with other establishments especially the privately owned in existence in the country.
Studies have shown that in the recent times, governments (both state and federal) are not good managers of business. And from the late 80’s, it was noticed that many government establishments have performed so dismally to the extent that their management found it an impossible task to pay their workers’ salaries due to low productivity. This low productivity has given rise to inefficiency and low morale among the workers. Even at present, the situation cannot be said to have ameliorated.
The problem plaguing many government-owned establishments is management problem. The management style adopted by those at the helm of affairs has affected to a great extent the performances of the workers. These management styles include autocracy, favoritism, inability to delegate jobs/responsibilities, inability to decentralize authority, poor communication between managers and subordinates, non-application of the concept of management by objectives (M.B.O) and above all, inability to motivate employees for greater productivity.
This study therefore is intended to critically look at the extent to which the management styles, adopted in the selected establishment, have affected the performances of the workers. It also examines how efficient the management of the establishment has been, especially in these turbulent times as well as the management problems confronting it. The study also suggested some solutions to the noted management problems so as to help the establishment achieve the objective for which it was established.
1.3. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
There are some reasons why government set up establishments. These include, to provide services to the public and also make profit to justify their existence and above all, to serve as the greatest provider of employment opportunities for the unemployed citizenry. Based on the above analogy, the purpose of this study are therefore aimed at,
i. Examining the management styles adopted by government establishment (under study) in Enugu State.
ii. Identifying the factors responsible for the poor performance of government-owned establishments.
iii. To examine to what extent the practice of effective management is in existence in the government establishment.
iv. Identify the managerial problems that militate against the attainment of the purposes of government establishments and their effects on the performance of the workers.
v. Proffering solutions or measures through which these management problems identified could be alleviated to increase workers’ performances.
1.4. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Osuala says that an adequate statement of a problem defines it very carefully in terms of its scope. As a result of this, it is very obvious for a researcher to set forth the bounds on the topic being researched on.
The scope of this study covers a selected establishment owned by the Enugu State government known as Nike Lake Resort.
1.5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In pursuance of this research work, the researcher considered it necessary to pose some research questions. These research questions would enable any reader of this work to comprehend clearly what the study is all about. However, it is important to state that these research questions are formulated based on the purpose of this study:
i. What exactly is the kind of management style adopted in this government establishment under study?
ii. What exactly are the management problems existing in this establishment which militate against its attainments of its objective?
iii. Do you think that the management attitude towards the employees is the factor responsible for their poor performances and inefficiency in the establishment?
iv. What is the degree of relationship between the management and the employees and how does it affect the performances of the employees in the establishment
v. Do you think that inefficiency on the part of workers is dependent on lack of motivation by the management
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
In undertaking this study, the researcher decided to work on the following hypothesis.
H0: The efficiency and performance of workers in an organization does not depend on how effective the management is.
H1: The efficiency and performance of workers in an organization depends to a great extent on how effective their management is.
H0: The management style adopted in any organization has no degree of relevance to its operational efficiency and productivity.
H1: The management style adopted in any establishment has a reasonable degree of relevance to its operational efficiency and productivity.
1.7. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is important to mention that this study dealt primarily with a selected government establishment in Enugu State with special reference to Nike Lake Resort, Enugu. The findings of this research hopefully will be of immense value to the selected establishment. Therefore, this research work is very significant because it will enable the researcher to make an outline of the organizing principles and also examine the organizational systems and structures of the government establishment.
This study is also significant because it will help to identify the factors responsible for the structural gaps and functional overlaps in this establishment, which are by-products of ineffective management.
Moreover, this study is important because it will enable the researcher to make a proposition for this establishment to enable them achieve their objectives.
This study is significant because the findings and subsequent recommendations by the researcher would be of great importance to other organizations which might be experiencing poor performances as a result of the management styles they adopted.
Finally, this study would be a contribution to the academic development of the theories of management and it would be very useful to other researchers who might wish to research further under the subject matter in future.
1.8. DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following definition of terms represents the specific meaning that will be given to them in this study. These terms are:
EFFICIENCY: This is the ratio between output and input. An efficient operation has a high output ratio while a low ratio denotes inefficiency in operations.
EFFECTIVENESS: The effectiveness of an organization implies the degree at which it attains its goals or the ability of the systems as a whole to effect intended result.
MANAGEMENT: In this study, management is the process of utilizing the resources of an organization to accomplish set objectives. And in some other places, it is used to denote the human elements at the helm of affairs in the organization.
PERFORMANCE: This means achievement, productivity and successful completion of tasks.
PRODUCTIVITY: This means the ability of the organization to attain its goals and objectives within a given period (technical effectiveness) or goal attainment perspective.
COMMUNICATION: This is a process whereby ideas, facts, information, thought, images and instructions are transmitted from one person to another.
AUTHORITY: This is the ability of a superior to give orders and the right to exact obedience from the subordinates.
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