JOB SATISFACTION AMONG SCHOOL COUNSELLORS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EDO AND DELTA STATES OF NIGERIA
This study investigated job satisfaction among school counsellors in secondary schools in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The study aimed at determining the levels of job satisfaction experienced by different categories of school counsellors, dimensions of job satisfaction and the influence of some demographic variables (sex, age, marital status, and experience) on counsellors’ job satisfaction. To address the problem of study six research questions and four hypotheses were raised and tested. The study was descriptive and adopted the survey research design. The participants were one hundred and twenty-one secondary school counsellors that were drawn from secondary schools in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria.
A questionnaire titled “Counsellors” Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (CJSQ) was administered on the participants by the researcher and some trained research assistants.
The study found that;
That majority of the secondary school counsellors are highly satisfied with their jobs.
That the job dimensions variables of promotion, job tenure, salary, workers’ social support and supervision significantly correlates with job satisfaction among counsellors in schools.
That there is no significant difference between male and female counsellors in their levels of job satisfaction.
That older counsellors are more satisfied with their jobs than younger counsellors in schools.
That married counsellors enjoy a higher level of job satisfaction than single counsellors.
That experienced counsellors are more satisfied with their jobs than inexperienced counsellors.
Based on these findings, it was recommended that counsellors’ job satisfaction in public secondary schools could be enhanced by government and school administrators if adequate attentions are paid to regular promotion, enhance remunerations, job tenure, workers’ social support, adequate supervision and well equipped counselling centres.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of contents
List of tables
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
Limitations of the Study
Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of Job Satisfaction
Facets of Job Satisfaction
Measurement of Job Satisfaction
Historical Overview of studies on Job Satisfaction
Models of Job Satisfaction
Studies on job satisfaction among school counsellors
Mediators of job satisfaction
Summary of review of related literature
CHAPTER THREE: METHOD OF STUDY
Design of the Study
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Instrument for Data Collection
Validity of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF DATA, INTERPRETATION AND
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
Analysis of Data
Discussion of Results
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Implications for Counselling Practices
Suggestions for Further Research
Appendix 1 – Counsellors’ Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (CJSQ)
Appendix II - T-test Analysis of significant difference between male and female counsellors in their levels of job satisfaction.
Appendix III – One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the age of counsellors and job satisfaction.
Appendix IV – Post –Hoc analysis using Fisher’s least significance difference among young, average and old counsellors.
Appendix V – T- text analysis of significant difference between married and single counsellors in their levels of job satisfaction.
Appendix VI – T-text Analysis of significant difference between experienced and inexperienced counsellors in their levels of job satisfaction.
Appendix VII – List of secondary schools used for the study in Edo and Delta States.
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents
Table 2: Levels of Job Satisfaction expressed by schools counsellors
Table 3: Respondents and dimensions of job satisfaction
Table 4: T-test Analysis of male and female counsellors with regards to job satisfaction.
Table 5: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of age of counsellors and job satisfaction.
Table 6: Post-Hoc analysis using fishers least significant difference among young, average and old counsellors.
Table 7: T-test analysis of experienced and inexperienced counsellors in relation to job satisfaction.
Table 8: T-test Analysis of married and single counsellors with regards to job satisfaction.
A number of factors contribute to the job satisfaction of workers in any organisation. These include the nature of job and achievement, recognition, responsibility and advancement, status and security. These factors are also applicable to the counsellors in the school system. The level of job satisfaction contributes to how effective an individual performs his or her job. (Bacharach, Bamberger & Mitchel, 1990; Spector 1997). Researches (i.e. Coll & Freeman, 1997; Cucharme & Martin, 2000) has also indicated that job satisfaction influence the emotional and physical well-being of an individual. Conversely, job dissatisfaction is associated with stress and burnout (Kesler, 1990; Burke & Greenglass, 1991; Martin & Schinke, 1998).
Today, the world is in dire need of development in science and technology through education. Nigeria cannot afford to be left behind in the scheme of things in which secondary education will play a key role. The counsellors in the school system need to be satisfied if they are to play their expected role. Therefore, the implication is that without improving the working conditions of counsellors and making them satisfied, the probable result is that very few of the educational aims can be properly achieved.
The role of school counsellors in the educational process has been a matter of public interest. It is in recognition of this vital service in the educational enterprise that the government has embarked on the training and retraining of school counsellors through seminars, conferences, workshop and in-service courses. School counsellors serve dual purposes by engaging in other ancillary functions, including teaching of different subjects in addition to their primary functions of counselling students. At times, there are cases of counsellors being assigned as full-time teachers to the classroom thereby relegating to the background their professional responsibilities. The implication is that the demands of the office of a school counsellor within the educational structure create strain and stress, which have given rise to the question as to whether secondary school counsellors experience job satisfaction.
A number of problems face Nigeria’s educational system, which tend to have negative effects on the degree of counsellors job satisfaction. These include: current pressure from working with more challenging students and needs, increased administrative and managerial tasks, time constraint, shortage of funds, increased counsellor-student ratios, and inadequate facilities. But the impact of all these on the counsellors’ job satisfaction has not been systematically investigated in Nigeria.
The study of job satisfaction among teachers has been widely researched (e.g. Nwagwu, 1981; Arubayi; 1981, Okoro, 1988), the studies have indicated that majority of teachers are satisfied with their jobs. However, little is known about job satisfaction of school counsellors (e.g. Eddy 1960; Miler & Muthard 1965; Alao, Olaniyi & Kobiowu, 1989 and Demato, 2001; Demato and Curcco, 2004). To this extent, it becomes imperative to investigate job satisfaction among school counsellors in secondary schools in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria.
In an effort to address the problem of study, the following research questions were raised.
i. What is the level of job satisfaction expressed by secondary school counsellors in Edo and Delta States?
ii. Which of the following dimensions of the counselor’s job: (promotion, job tenure, salary, social support and supervision contribute to job satisfaction of school counsellors?
iii. Is there any difference in job satisfaction between male and female counsellors?
iv. Is there any difference in job satisfaction among old, average and young counsellors?
v. Is there any difference in job satisfaction between married and single counsellors?
vi. Is there any difference in job satisfaction between experienced and inexperienced counsellors?
The following hypotheses were raised to guide the study.
(i) There is no significant difference between male and female counsellors in their levels of job satisfaction.
(ii) There is no significant difference among old, average and young counsellors in their levels of job satisfaction.
(iii) There is no significant difference between married and single counsellors in their levels of job satisfaction.
(iv) There is no significant difference between experienced and inexperienced counsellors in their levels of job satisfaction.
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of job satisfaction among school counsellors in secondary schools in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The level of job satisfaction plays a vital role in the way and manner an individual performs his or her job in an organization. Job satisfaction is necessary to ensure continuous and high quality services to school children and the adults who work with them.
Specifically, the study assessed the dimensions of job satisfaction, that is, promotion, job tenure, salary, social support and supervision with a view to determining which of them significantly contribute to job satisfaction of school counsellors.
This study also examined some demographic variables that could affect job satisfaction among school counsellors. These include sex, age, marital status and years of counselling experience.
Significance of the Study
The finding of this study will contribute to the body of knowledge and increase information in the area of job satisfaction of school counsellors. Therefore, it will be of immense importance to the educational sector in general and the counselling profession in particular.
It would highlight to the educational planners and administrators the need to have qualified counsellors who are satisfied with their jobs in view of the fact that counsellors who are satisfied with their jobs will be more prone to exhibit the kind of behaviour needed to promote the personal growth and development of the students which is their primary responsibility.
The study would also assist various levels of government-federal, states and local in the areas of planning, policy formulation and programme implementation pertaining to secondary school counsellors’ job satisfaction since a satisfied counsellor is believed to be a productive and dedicated worker.
Counsellor educators will be provoked by the findings of the study to engage in more research work on job satisfaction among school counsellors. This will help to produce more empirical studies in the field of professional school counselling.
The study would be of great assistance to post-primary school board, school principals and counsellors themselves in having a clearer perception of the variables affecting job satisfaction and evaluating the secondary school counselling programme with a view to ensuring that counsellors are regularly supervised and adequately catered for in the school system.
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