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HEPATOTOXICITY OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF ENANTIA CHLORANTHA ROOT ON WISTAR ALBINO RATS

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:70
  • Methodology:Scientific
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Science Lab Technology Project Topics & Materials)
HEPATOTOXICITY OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF Enantia chlorantha ROOT ON WISTAR ALBINO RATS
ABSTRACT

The root of Enantia chlorontha was assayed for its hepatotoxicity effect. Extacts from the root were made using 95% ethanol. The root extracts were administered orally to 15 wistar albino rats and varying doses. 5 rats were kept as control group. The effect of the extracts was determined by assaying for the levels of serum-liver enzymes acting as biochemical makers. Liver enzymes assayed included Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanin aminiotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phophatase (ALP). Comparison of the enzyme levels of the control group with these of the group administered with the rot extract revealed a significant elevation of liver enzyme levels (P < 0.05) in the test subjects. The observed elevation is indicative of liver injury. Thus, the oral administration of root extract of Enantia chlorantha could be toxic to liver cells high doses.
   
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
1.0    INTRODUCTION                       
1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY           
1.2    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES                     
1.3    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM                
1.4    LIMITATION OF STUDY                      
1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY              
CHAPTER TWO
2.0    LITERATURE REVIEW                 
2.1    GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF Enantia chlorontha 
2.2    ECOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION OF
Enantia chlorantha                          
2.3    MANAGEMENT AND PROPAGATION PRACTICES 
2.4    FUNCTIONAL USES                        
2.5    TOXICITY                                 
2.6    HEPATOTOXICITY                          
2.7    LIVER                                   
2.7.1 LIVER ENZYME                           
2.7.2 SOME PATTERN OF LIVER INJURY        
2.7.3 TREATMENT/PROGNOSIS OF LIVER DAMAGE   
2.8    THE ALBINO RATS                           
2.9    PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDS              
CHAPTER THREE
3.0    MATERIALS AND METHODS              
3.1    COLLECTION, IDENTIFICATION AND
PROCESSING OF PLANT MATERIAL            
3.1.1 EXTRACTION OF PLANT MATERIAL               
3.1.2 DETERMINATION OF THE WEIGHT OF    
DRIED EXTRACT                    
3.2    PHYTOCHEMCIAL ANALYSIS                
3.3    EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL                   
3.4    DETERMINATION OF DOSAGE OF THE PLANT
EXTRACT FOR ANIMAL FEEDING             
3.5    GROUPING OF ANIMAL AND ADMINISTRATION
OF PLANT EXTRACT                        
3.6    FEEDING METHOD               
3.7    PROCEDURES FOR BLOOD SAMPLE COLLECTION   
3.7.1 ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE TEST (ALT)
METHOD FOR ALT TEST                
3.7.2 ASPARTATE ANIMOTRANSFERASE: (AST)
METHOD FOR AST TEST                  
3.7.3 ALKALINE PHOUSPHATASE: (ALP)
METHOD FOR ALP TEST               
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0    RESULTS                          
4.1    RESULT OF THE PHOTOCHEMICAL
ANALYSIS OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT
OF Enantia chlorontha                     
4.2    HEPATOTOXICITY ASSAY              

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1    DISCUSSION                            
5.2    CONCLUSION                         
5.3     RECOMMENDATION               

REFERENCES                            
CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION
1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The interaction between man and plants materials can be dated back to antiquity. Man has depended on plants for so many things. Primitive men have depended on trees for comfort and shelter, used tree branches and leave for tent making and also used fruits, vegetables and plant seeds for food. By trial and error, they must have acquired some biological knowledge that was useful in determining beneficial and poisonous plants. These observations were handed down from one generation to another and have been modified by the younger generation (Claus et al., 1965).
Diseases have plagued man since ages. They have been the major causes of morbidity and mortality throughout the whole world. Since some plants were discovered to possess some therapeutic abilities, they played a major role in salvaging the situation thereby making medicinal plants essential to humanity.
The presence of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae and helminthes has made the world a less favorable place for man.
In African ethno medicine, therapeutic agents are derived from plants minerals and animal parts.
Drugs derived from plants constitute bulk of therapeutic agents dispersed by the native medicine practitioners. Medicinal plants have been discovered by herbalists in many countries in Africa, Asia, America and other countries of the world for the treatment of various human and animal diseases (Gonzalez, 1980). The antimicrobial activity of plants reside in their vegetative parts which include the leave, steams, bark, roots, fruits, seeds and flowers. Some higher plants are used as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiprotozoa, insecticidal and molluscidal agents (Mcgoon et al., 2009).
Disoscodes a Greek physician who lived in the century A.D described about 600 plants which were known to have medicinal properties.
Surprisingly many of these plants are still of importance in modern medicine (Claus et al.,1965). The root of Cliva minals is used as a snake bite remedy by the zulu.
In Tangayinka, the crushed root of Streptosiphon lirtus is used in wound treatment. Blipharis capensis is mostly used as anthrax remedy by both the European and the Africans (Nicholas et al., 2008).
The study of the antimicrobial activity of plants has received attention during the recent years. Most of these medicinal plants have been tested for their antimicrobial activities. Extracts from the leaves or piper quineens, Ocimum gratissimum, Moringa Oleifera and Erythrophleum suavaeolus have been successful used in the inhibition of Trichophyton rubum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte growth (Nwosu and Okafor, 1995). The extracts of Opuntia fiscu-indica cladodes are used in folk medicine for their antiulcer and would healing activities (Patel et al., 1998). Hippophae (sea buck thorn) is used in Asia as an anticarcinogenic agent. Bee propolis, a natural product form plant resins has been shown to posses antimicrobial, antioxidant antiulcer and antitumor activities.
More than 300 compounds such as polyphenolss, phenolic aldehydes sequiterpene quinines, coumarins, amino acids, Steriods and inorganic compounds have been identified in propolis samples (Lofty, 2006).
Glossyogyne tenuifolia is used in Taiwan as an anti-inflammatory agent (Ha, 2006) and Enantia chlorontha has been used in tropical countries for the treatment of malaria.
Although we know that most antimicrobial plants are good in disease treatment, it is still not hidden that some of these antimicrobial plants has negative adverse affect to some cells, tissues and organs in the body.
Therefore this work will help us to review the adverse effects of Enantia chlorontha as an anti-malaria herbs and its hepatotoxic effect in the body.
Although medicinal plants have been very useful in treatment of many diseases, even before the evolution of synthetic antibiotics, some of these antimicrobial plants have had negative side effects on some internal organs of the human system.
Enantia chlorontha is an ancient plant that has been used in treatment of diseases.
Therefore, this study is aimed at the evaluation of Enantia chlorantha as antimicrobial plant and its hepoatotoxic effects.
From this study, we will be able to evaluate the hepatotoxic effects of Enantia chrontha.
The ethanolic crude extract of Enantia chlorantha was tested on some pure clinical isolates and it showed antimicrobial activity against some micro-organisms which include: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subsitllis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and proteus mirabilis.
The phytochemical analysis was also carried out and it was shown to contain some chemical compound like sterols, Glycosides, Tannins, Carbohydrate, Sugar Terpens, Anthroquinones and saponin.
The crude extract was dissolved in distilled water and the solution was administered to albino rats in different concentration for some number of days and the response of their liver enzyme was waited for before the albino rats were bled and their blood assayed biochemically.
1.2    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
•    This study was carried out to the check the adverse effect of medicinal herbs in the internal organs of the human.
•    It gave an insight to the required dosage to be administered to patients instead of random administration which could be toxic to the internal organs.
•    It is used to monitor the condition of the internal organ on the cause of herbal treatment.
1.3    STATEMENT AND PROBLEM
Many work have been reported on the medicinal values and therapeutical properties of Enatia chlornatha, this prompted the used for a project work to be carried out to investigated the hepatotoxicity of the ethanolic extracts of Enantia chlorontha on wister albino rats.
1.4    LIMITATION OF STUDY
Due to time taken, gathering of the plant, power source and financial implication involve leads to the difficulties of this project work of Enantia chlorantha.
1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The results of the test carried out on this project work, reveals that the back of Enantia chlorantha (Ukpaka obia) is a good medicinal herbs for malaria treatment and other disease.

HEPATOTOXICITY OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF ENANTIA CHLORANTHA ROOT ON WISTAR ALBINO RATS

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Details

Type Project
Department Science Lab Technology
Project ID SLT0154
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 70 Pages
Methodology Scientific
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Science Lab Technology
    Project ID SLT0154
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 70 Pages
    Methodology Scientific
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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