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THE EVALUATION OF MICROORGANISMS ON GARRI AT OGBETE MARKET

(Microbiology)

THE EVALUATION OF MICROORGANISMS ON GARRI AT OGBETE MARKET

ABSTRACT

            In the work, samples of Garri obtained from Ogbete market were evaluated for microbial contamination. Four sample of Garri from different sources of supple were collected from Ogbete main market Enugu Okwo, Nkalagu, Emene, and  Abakaliki respectively.  The sample were extracted using equal volume of sterile distilled water and serially diluted appropriately and the cultured for the growth of microben.  The growth were further suspected to biochemical tests, characterization for confirmatory diagnosis organism isolated include staphylococcus aureus, clostridium perferingens, Clostridium botulism and vibroi parahamolyticus.

            The evaluation show that Abakaliki Garri have more microbial spores than others. This can be because of handler or jute bag or moisture which help in the increase of the microbial load.  This was involve the microbial analysis of Garri produced from four major production sites namely: Nkalafi Okwuo imene Aba and collected from the major marketing site Ogbetet main Enugu.  The sample digest were extracted wing equal oplungs of sterile distilled water and serially distilled appropriately and the cultured for the growths of microben.  The growth New further subject to biochemical tests characterization for canisimatory diagnosis.  Organism isolated indade staphylococcus aureus; sodium peferefusu, clostridian trotulium and vibro para haemolylica

LIST OF TABLES

 

TABLE ONE: Plate count Per ml of viable microorganisms from the

four different Garri samples.

TABLE TWO:            Standard plate count of different colonial forms from the

four different Garri samples.

TABLE THREE:        Ph READING OF Garri samples from different location

TABLE FOUR:          Preliminary identification of bacterial isolates

TABLE FIVE:            Biochemical test for the identification of bacterial

isolates for the four different Garri samples

TABLE SEVEN:        Average pH reading, Average count pen ml and types of

bacterial organisms isolated from the four different Garri samples.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE                                                                                         

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1              Food as a vehicle for certain diseases

2.2              Types of food poisoning organisms

2.3              Treatment of food poisoning

2.4              Prevention of food poisoning

CHAPTER THREE

3.1              Material and methods

3.2              Methods

3.2.1        Sterilization of materials

3.2.2        Collection of samples

3.2.3        Preparation of culture media

3.2.4        Preparation of samples

3.2.5        Serial / 10-fold dilution technique

3.2.6        Plating technique

3.2.7        Bacterial count, gram staining and microscopic work

3.2.8        Biochemical test for identification of bacterial  isolates

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0              RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1              Discussion

5.2              Conclusion / recommendation

5.3              Appendix

5.4              References

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

            The diet of many African peoples especially the Nigeria people are supplement with cassava products preserved by special method such as Garri, fufu etc.  It may be partially or completely backed or precooked ready for eating and serving.  During preparation, food may be contaminated with microorganisms.  Unless the growth and metabolism of this microorganism are controlled, they are capable of altering the condition of food resulting in food spoilage.  Microorganism are organisms that cannot be seen by an invaded eyes, their size are within the range of (NM) micrometer to (nm) Nanometre and their activities on food produce food poisoning food poisoning ie an illness that result from the consumption of contaminated food containing toxin screted into it by contaminated microorganism or contaminated by microorganisms when the body release their toxin (Okoli, 1991).  Also the (Kay and Dennis 1986) defined food poisoning as any substance applied to the body externally or taken internally that can cause injury to any part of the body or cause death.

            In Garri preparation the cassava is pealed, washed, grated then follow by dehydration under pressure, finally frying, packaging and storage.  These process if not handle in a good hygiene condition or good environment, microorganism will contaminated it and will result in food can lead to the death of many people which can reduce the working force and increase poverty rate due to heavy hospital bills.  To avoid this problem, this research work is designed to know the microbial organisms of Garri in Ogbete market.  The microbial organisms present will be analyzed to see if it can cause food poisoning.  From the analysis the list of microorganism present or microorganism contamination on garri can be control effectively and our Garri will be save  for consumption at anytime.

            The intoxication from nature source is that found naturally in contain plants or animals (Frazien and Westhof. 1978).  The intoxications caused by bacterial are of two types by clostridium botulinum, staphylococcal intoxication, caused by a toxin in the food produced by staphylococcus aureus.  In the production of food, such as in the fermentation of garri, the fermentation reduced the cyanile toxicity  in the cassava which if present in large quantity causes food poisoning.  The processing of cassava involves the contamination of the cassava if it is not properly processed.

1.1              AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

To evaluate he microbial organisms of garri in Ogbete market.  Ot characterize for microbial organism of Garri if any to relate  the above to personnel hygiene and environmental hygiene.

1.3       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

            The sources of contamination many include:

1.                  High moisture content of Garri before storage enhances growth of mould.

2.                  Transportation during rainy reason caused wetness of the jut bag which brought about mould growth.

3.                  Seller probably a pathogen carrier of any classification. Some sellers have some infection which are contagious and can contaminate the Garri on sale

4.                  Open air  exposure and duration of sale past production. The microbial load in the air can raise above toxic level became of some air borne organism and if Garri is kept in such environemnt it will be contaminated.

5.                  Storage for longtime may enhance deterioration.  Keeping Garri in storage room for longtime will affect the nature of the Garri.

1.4              HYPOTHESIS

HO      the Garri on sale at Ogbete market have no microbial lead

Hi        The Garri on sale at Ogbete market have some bacterial load.

15        SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

            This study is based on the fact that Garri which is the staple food of man may caused a lot of harm to his life.  This is due to the unhygienic condition of the environemnt during processingg, storage and further exposure to  the market in which Garri is sold.  These microbes can leads to food poisoning and other intoxication (ailment) which can lead to loss of man power and  loss of life. Therefore this work is to stem down ugly trend which may even affect our socioeconomic life by educating the people that are involved inteh processing, storage and selling of Garri about personnel hygiene on the product and how it can be store.

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