Diabetes is a chronic disease that leads to high morbidity and mortality resulting from the complications that develop during its clinical course. Genitourinary complications being one of the complications of diabetes occur when the genital and urinary organs no longer function properly. This study aimed at determing risk factors of genitourinary complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study was carried out to determine risk factors to genitourinary complications amongst type 2 diabetics attending Imo state specialist hospital Umuguma, Imo state university teaching hospital Orlu and Avu primary health Centre for checkup. The main instrument for data collection was a self-reported questionnaire administered on all the 100 subjects. A statistical package for social science (SPSS, version 21) was used to analyze the collected data, inferential analysis were employed to explain the results of the study and the statistical association was ascertained with chi- square test. The results showed a significant statistical difference in the comparison of all the studied risk factors amongst the 50 cases and 50 control subjects except in the Age at diagnosis (P<0.810). There was a statistically significant difference in the compliance to medication between cases and control subjects, P<0.001, OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 2.071-3.77. About 50(64.1%) of the case subjects and 28(35.9%) of the control subjects were not complying to treatment while 0(.0%) of the case subjects and 22(100.0%) of control subjects complied to treatment. A statistically significant difference was also found in the comparison of mode of control between case subjects and control subjects (p<0.021). The result also showed that co-morbidity with hypertension was the highest predictor of genitourinary complication in diabetics, OR: 14.4, P<0.001 and 95% CI: 5.466- 38.071. About 41(77.4%) of the case subjects were not hypertensive. Increased duration of diabetic status of the subjects showed an increased risk to genitourinary complication amongst the subjects. 12(100.0%) of the case subjects had been diabetic for more 20 years while none 0(.0%) of the control subjects was found to be diabetic for more 20 years (P<0.001).
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, genitourinary complications, Risk factors, Imo state.