REHABILITATION OF ROAD LINKING UMUEKULUMMIRI STREET TO IMT AWARNESS GROUND JUNCTION IMT CAMPUS III ENUGU

(Civil Engineering)

REHABILITATION OF ROAD LINKING UMUEKULUMMIRI STREET TO IMT AWARNESS GROUND JUNCTION IMT

CAMPUS III ENUGU

ABSTRACT

          This project entitled “Rehabilitation of Road” is aimed at investigating the causes of failure on the road linking Federal Secretariat, IMT Civil soil lab to Industrial Centre IMT Campus III Enugu and the possible way of re-designing it for its effective use by IMT community and visitors of IMT.  But before the road is being re-designed, effort was made to find out the causes of the road failure along this road which includes lack of drainage system, lack of maintenance, inadequate thickness of the wearing course and poor quality control during the construction of the road.

          Furthermore, Reconnaisance and preliminary survey which includes leveling and traversing were carried out along the centre line of the road.  Soil tests were also carried out in the laboratory which helps in finding out the causes of the road failure and the possible way of getting it re-designed.  The soil tests that were carried out includes: mechanical analysis, compaction test, Atterberg limit test and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test.

          Finally, I therefore recommend this project materials very essential for lecturers, researchers and other students that will carry out their project on the topic “Rehabilitation of Road..

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

1.1     SCOPE OF THE PROJECT                                                  

1.2     DEFINITION OF ROAD, HIGHWAYS AND EXPRESSWAYS

1.3     FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF ROAD

1.4     IMPORTANCE OF A GOOD ROAD NETWORK

1.5     DISADVANTAGES OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

CHAPTER TWO

2.0      GENERAL CUASES OF ROAD FAILURE…          

2.1      FAILURES OF SUB-BASE AND BASE COURSE…

2.2      FAILURES OF BITUMINOUS WEARING COURSE…      

2.3      TYPICAL FAILURE OF A FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT…

2.4      DEFEATS IN ROADS…      

2.5      REMEDY FOR POTHOLES IN ROADS                         

2.6      ROAD REHABILITATION AND MAINTENANCE  

2.7      MAINTENANCE OF BITUNMINOUS WEARING SURFACES     

2.8      MAINTENANCE OF SIDE DRAINS                             

2.9      CAUSES OF ROAD FAILURE ALONG THE PROJECT ROUTE   

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     SOIL ANALYSIS                                                               

3.1     IMPORTANCE OF SOIL ANALYSIS                            

3.2     COLLECTION AND PREPARATION OF SAMPLES FOR THE SOIL TESTS                                                                         

3.3     MECHANICAL ANALYSIS                                                   

3.4     ATTERBERG LIMIT TEST                                                   

3.5     COMPACTION TEST                                                

3.6     CBR TEST                                                                       

3.7     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SOIL TEST                                    

3.8     CLASSIFICATION OF SOIL                                       

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     LAND SURVEYING AND INSPECTION                                 

4.1     LEVELLING OPERATION                                                   

4.2     INSTRUMENT USED IN LEVELLING AND THEIR USES

4.3     THE ENGINEER’S LEVEL                                                   

4.4     TYPES OF ENGINEER’S LEVEL                                           

4.5     PROCEDURES/PRECAUTIONS DURING LEVELLING    

4.6     ADJUSTMENT OF A LEVEL                                       

4.7     BOOKING AND REDUCTION OF THE LEVELS             

4.8     ERROWS DURING LEVELLING                                           

4.9     PRECAUTIONS DURING LEVELLING                                  

4.10   REDUCTION OF DATA GENERATED FROM THE LEVELLING

4.11   EARTHWORK COMPUTATION                                            

4.12   CRITERII FOR CHOICE OF FORMATION LINE            

4.13   DETERMINATION OF CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF EARTHWORK

4.14   DETERMINATION OF VOLUME OF EARTHWORK         

4.15   TRAVERSING                                                         

4.16   INSTRUMENT USED IN TRAVERSING                       

4.17   THE THEODOLITE                                                  

4.18   TYPES OF THEODOLITE                                          

4.19   PROCEDURING DURING TRAVERSING           

4.20   THEODOLITE ADJUSTMENT                                    

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0         PAVEMENT AND GEOMETRIC DESIGN            

5.1         PAVEMENT DESIGN                                      

5.2         DEFINITION OF A PAVEMENT                                  

5.3         CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD PAVEMENT              

5.4         COMPONENT OF A PAVEMENT                                 

5.5         TYPES OF PAVEMENT                                                       

5.6         FACTORS AFFECTING THE DESIGN AND STABILITY OF

PAVEMENT                                                                      

5.7         PAVEMENT DESIGN METHODS                                

5.8         GEOMETRIC DESIGN                                              

5.9         CROSS SECTIONAL COMPONENT OF A ROAD  

5.10      SIGHT DISTANCE                                                   

5.11      DESIGN SPEED                                                      

5.12      HORIZONTAL ALLIGNMENT                                     

5.13      SUPPER ELEVATION                                               

5.14      TYPES OF CULVES                                                  

5.15      DESIGN OF HORIZONTAL CURLVE                           

5.16      WIDENING OF PAVEMENT AT CURVED POSITION     

5.17      CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION          

REFEENCES                                                             

CHAPTER ONE

1.0        INTRODUCTION

Road is one of the important branches of transportation system.  Highway Engineering deals with the planning, design, construction and maintenance/repair of road system.

Furthermore, road transportation contributes to the economic, industrial and cultural development of a country.  The importance of road transportation is comparable to the veins in the human body.  Just as veins in the human body maintains health by circulation of blood to different parts of the body, similarly, a good road keep the health of a Nation in good condition by keeping the goods and people moving from one place to another place.  Thus, road is vital for the all-round development of a nation, or region, since every commodity needs road transportation facilities both at the production stage and as well as distribution stage.  In the production stage, road transport is needed for carrying raw materials such as seeds, manure in the case of food production, cotton, coal, steel and sugarcane, etc, in the case of cloth and sugar industry and many more.  In the distribution stage road transportation is required to transport finished products from farm and factories to the distribution centers.  Students used road transportation to go to school, workers, business men and women and so many other categories of people need road transport for their day to day activities for the running of their business, office, etc.

Finally, for the economic, cultural and social development of a country an effective and adequate means of road transport is very essential.

1.1     SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

          This project is aimed at finding out the causes of the pavement failure on this route, 278.2m long and the possible way of rehabilitating it so as to enhance easy, efficient and comfortable flow (movement) of traffic in the road.  Survey and soil analysis were also carried out for the purpose of generating data for the design.  Information and specific features from Federal Ministry of Works were also utilized during the Engineering design of the road.

1.2     DEFINITION OF HIGHWAY, ROAD, STREET AND EXPRESSWAY

          Some terms like highways, roads and streets have precise meanings, though they are often used loosely in practice.

          A highway is therefore defined as an arterial road facility designed for high speed and high volume traffic in the non-urban areas.  For example, the National road network of a country is called the National Highway Network.

          A ‘road’ is defined as a lower order of highway (facility), designed for relatively lower speed and lower volume of traffic in the non-urban (rural) areas.  They can be district roads or village roads.

          A ‘street’ can be defined as an urban road facility for low speed and high  or low volume of traffic movement.  The traffic on the street road is high at the pick period (time) and relatively low at the non pick period.

          An ‘expressway’ or ‘Express Highway’ in order hand can be said to be a superior type of highway facility with full or partial control of access.  They are generally provided with divided carriageways, controlled access, and grade separations at cross-roads.  It is called freeway in USA.

1.3     FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF ROADS

          It is necessary to classify functionally the road system of a country for the following reasons:

(i)                   To facilitate administration of the roads, assigning responsibility to administer roads of different classes to different organization.

(ii)                  To assign appropriate design standards to different classes.

(iii)                To facilitate the planner to develop an integrated and harmonious road network for the country.

Universally, roads are classified into two broad categories:

(i)                   Urban roads   (ii)     Non-urban (rural) roads.

Urban roads are those which are located within cities, towns and other inhabited areas and come under the jurisdiction of municipalities, cantonment boards and post trusts.

Rural roads are those that are located in the non-urban areas and connect cities and towns across the country.

The urban roads are further classified functionally into the following broad hierarchy:

(1)         Expressways:  These are urban roads whose central portion is reserved for high speed vehicle with full or partial control of access.

(2)         Arterial roads:-  These are urban roads which are meant for through traffic, usually on a continuous route.

(3)         Sub-arterial roads:-  These are urban roads which provide lower level of travel mobility than the arterial roads.

(4)         Collector roads:-  These are urban or city roads which are constructed for the purpose of collecting and distributing the traffic to and fro local roads or streets.

(5)         Local roads:-  These are urban roads which provide access to residential, business and other buildings.  They may be residential commercial or industrial.

The Non-urban roads or rural roads are classified as follows:

(1)     National Highway (N.H):        These are roads which traverse the length and breadth of the country and are of national importance.  They connect commercial or industrial centres with airports, seaports, states capitals, foreign highways, and large towns.  They can be deemed to be the primary road network of the country and in Nigeria for example, it is being constructed and maintained by the federal government.

(2)     State Highway (S.H):  These roads are the main arteries of traffic within a state.  They connect district headquarters with state headquarters, connect national highway system and highways of neighbouring or adjacent states.  These are constructed and maintained by the state government.

(3)     District roads also known as local government roads:  These roads take off from the main roads in a state to the interior of the districts or local government areas.

(4)     Village roads (V.R):  These roads connect villages and group of villages with one another and to market places and district roads.  They are being constructed and maintained by local government boards or through donations and community efforts.

1.4     IMPORTANCE OF A GOOD ROAD NETWORK SYSTEM

          A road development programme opens up new avenues of employment agriculture, industry, commerce, health and sanitation of the environment.

Besides providing employment and creating basic infrastructure for economic development in all direction, road holds the key to the economic and social progress including higher food production, improvement in the living standard of the people and opening up of the rural communities and the country in general.  The construction of road changes the character and intensity of land use by making a significant contribution towards balanced regional development and industrial growth.  In short, the importance of roads can be summarized as follows:-

1.            The improvement of road increases the land value of the near by areas.

2.            It helps in the development of agriculture and natural resources of the area

3.            The roads help in transporting rural produce such as vegetables, fruits, etc. in a very short time to the cities and the farmers get better price for their produce, which helps in improving the economic conditions of the rural areas.

4.            It helps in the development of commerce and increases the political activities in an area.

5.            It helps in better fire and police protection and national defence.

6.            A new road shortens the distance and improves speed.  It also opens up new avenues for exchange of goods and services.

7.            It helps in medical, educational and sanitation facilities of an area

8.            It helps in famine and flood relief e.t.c

1.5        DISADVANTAGES OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

It is often said that any thing that have advantages also have some disadvantages, for this reason, the disadvantages of road transportation system includes the following:

(1)     Safety:  One of the serious disadvantages of road transport is its poor record of safety.  The reason is not far to seek because the vehicle move on road space which is shared by all the vehicles and hence crossing and overtaking manoevres are potential hazards.  Road accidents have become a serious menace, claiming enormous economic loss to the nation.

(2)     Environmental Pollution:  Road transport is one of the major causes of sources of environmental pollution.  Noise, fumes, vibration, loss of aesthetics, ribbon development, clutter of advertisements along highways, these are some of the ill-effects.

(3)     Parking problem:  Road transport has caused parking problem of serious proportions in city streets.

(4)     Energy:  Road transport consumes greater energy per passenger km and tone km.  though the road transport has some disadvantages, its advantages still supercedes the disadvantages and cannot be over-emphasis with.

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