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EFFECTS OF CODE MIXING ON HAUSA-ENGLISH LANGUAGE BILINGUALS

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  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:69
  • Methodology:Primary and Secondary data
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Linguistics and Communication Project Topics & Materials)
EFFECTS OF CODE MIXING ON HAUSA-ENGLISH LANGUAGE BILINGUALS
ABSTRACT

The main aim and objectives of this research were to identify the implication for code-mixing, and the reason for using code-mixing in Hausa-English bilinguals. It also presented and explained the phenomenon. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The study contained six conversation and 1 construction and sentence, which was collected from different respondents. The results show that the Hausa language lack some lexicon that can replace English lexicon.
    The data was analysed using (Hoffman 1991:116)types of code-mixing based on the juncture or scope where language take place and Saville Troike(1986) additional approach.
The research show that code-mixing has effect on Hausa-English bilingual and some of the causes of code-mixing is talking about a particular topic, interjection, lack of lexicon in the language and identity with groups, etc.
Finally, the research suggests that the Hausa lexicographer should do more to cover the gap in the lexicon of the language and language teachers should encourage the students to stick to one language at a time and master the language.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter One: Introduction    
1.0    Introduction    -    -    -        
1.1Background to the Study    -
1.1.2 Hausa language and the People    -
1.1.3    Concept of Code Mixing    -    -
1.1.4    Bilingualism    -    -    -    -
1.1.5     Code Mixing and Pragmatics    -    -
1.1.6    Code Mixing and psycholinguistic    -    
1.1.7    Code Mixing and Syntactic    -    -    
1.2.    Statement of the Problem    -    -
1.3    Purpose of the Study    -    -    -
1.4    Significance and Justification of Study    -
1.5    Methodology    -    -    -    -
1.6    Theoretical Framework    -    
Chapter Two: Review of Relevant Literature
2.0    Introduction    -    -
2.1     The Conceptual Review    
2.2    Previous Studies    -    
2.3    The Concern of Present Study    
Chapter three
3.0    Data Presentation    -    -
3.1    Conversation 1: Two Course Mate    -
3.2    Conversation 2    -    
3.3    Conversation 3    
3.4    Conversation 4    -    
3.5    Conversation 5    -    
3.6    Conversation 6    -    
3.7    Conversation 7    
Chapter Four
4.0        Data Analysis    -    -    
4.1    Types of Code mixing    -
4.2    Conversation 1    
4.3    Conversation II    
4.4     Conversation III
4.5    Construction IV    -    -
4.6    Conversation V    -    -    
4.7    Conversation VI    -    -
Chapter Five
5.0           Introduction    -    -    -    -
5.1     Summary    -    -    -    -
5.1.1    The findings of the study    -    
5.2    Conclusion    -    -    -    -
5.3    Recommendation    -    -
5.4     Suggestion for further studies    -
Reference    -    -
    CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
    Code mixing is a well known traits in speech pattern of language choice of an average bilingual in an human society.
This research carries out a discussion of the socio-linguistic aspect of code-mixing among Hausa-English bilinguals.
 Bokamba (1989) define code-mixing is the embedding of various linguistic units such as affixes (bound morphemes), words (unbound morphemes),phrases and clauses from a co-operative activity where the participants,in order to infer what is intended, must reconcile what they hear with what they understand. he/her utterances. So if a speaker met two different code on language in his utterance, then it should be asked first who he is.
In this manner, the specific characteristics of the speaker are among others, his social background, level of education and solidarity of region. However all of these specific characteristics will often colour his code-mixing on the other hands the language unction determines how far the language used by speaker given an opportunity to mix codes, because when a speaker of his utterance achieves is extremely determined by his language choice.
Ronald Wardhaugh (1998:99) refer to code as the particular dialect or language that an individual chooses to use on any occasion. Wardhaugh further state that a code  is a system of communication between two or more parties. The code a speaker choose to use in any occasion will thus indicate how he/she expect other to perceived. Mixing is the act of inter-changing from one code to another in a particular discourse.
Code mixing usually occurs in bilingual or multilingual community or society and the function (meaning) of the language cannot be clearly separated. This code mixing is used when the conversant use both language together to the extent that they change from one language other in the course of a single utterance (Wardhaugh 1986:103).
In Code mixing the main codes or basic code has its own function and meaning, other codes, however are only the pieces, without function and meaning as a code.
Igboanusi (2002:30) submit that while it as true that most bilingual situation, the two language in context are complementary in the sense that they are equally mix to enable communication base on any one language in a context. It is also true that in Nigeria situation language mixing is unidirectional i.e. most time only English language interferes with the mother tongue-oriented speech.
Code mixing has two features namely dependency feature and the language or variant element that insert in other language have no more function. Dependency feature marked by the relationship between the language rule and function. The role means who use the language and function meant what will be reached by the speaker with his or her utterance. If the speaker mixes his or her code or language, then it must be asked the factors such as: who the speaker: social background, the level of education, religion, etc. A speaker who masters many languages will have chance to mix code more than other speaker who only speakers who only master one language.
The second feature that the language or variant element inserted in other language have no more function. It can be classified into two lines. The first is inner Code mixing that is originated from the nature language will its all variation for instance Hausa mixed with Nupe.
The second is outer Code mixing that mix a foreign language with native language such as English language mixed with Yoruba, Igbo, Hausa language. For instance Hausa - English mix:
However there is a universal motivation for Code mixing language varieties not until recently, Code mixing was seen as evidence of internal mental confusion. The inability to separate two language sufficiently to warrant the description of true bilingual which is motivated by certain linguistic and socio-linguistics factor.
The role of English in the teaching and learning perpriery, the bilingual/multilingual setting in Nigeria and the trend of globalization is contributing tremendously in the way English is influencing Hausa so the states quo give rise to a frequent manifestation of various language contact phenomena such as - code - switching, borrowing, loan, interference, Code mixing, etc. within the spontaneous conversion of Hausa bilingual in Nigeria and in Diaspora. It reached the extend that the bilingual speaker can hardly maintain a conversion without Code mixing between Hausa language and other language especially English.
On Code mixing as a language contact phenomenon which appear in various formal and informal contact of the bilingual speaker such as social contact and situations include official meeting, public functions, classroom interaction. Competent speaker in two or more language often found themselves Code mixing between the language in single sentence or speech to express their intent and share interactive meaning even though the bilingual at times may not be aware that they repeatedly mixed between the available code within their utterances.
 1.0.1 HAUSA LANGUAGE AND THE PEOPLE
Hausa a branch of Afro-asiatic language of the Chadic group families the largest number of speakers spoken as a first language by almost 35 million people speak and comparatively over one hundred million people non-native speaker who demonstrate a varying degree of competence in the language. Nigeria and other African countries like Niger Republic, Chad, has developed Hausa into lingua France.
Hausa has been categorized into classical and modern Hausa. The classical Hausa here refers to Hausa language and literary style which has been greatly influenced by Arabic and Islamic convictions opposed to modern Hausa which has been notable inclined to western civilization and ethics through the activity of English language and local language within Nigeria in Nigeria.
The Hausa people are diverse but culturally homo-generous based primarily in Sahelian and Sudana, Dara area of Northern Nigeria. Other Hausa have also moved to large coastal cities in the region such as Lagos, Port-Harcourt, and other parts of Nigeria. However most Hausa live in small villages or town in Nigeria, where they grow crops, raise livestock including cattle and engage in trade. The Hausa aristocracy had historically develop an equestrian based culture and a status symbol of traditional nobility in Hausa society.
Hausa is used as the language of instruction at the elementary level in school in northern Nigeria and Hausa is available as a course of study in Northern Nigeria universities beside several high degree (master and PhD). are offered in Hausa in various universities in the Diaspora (URS, US, Germany). Hausa is also used in various social media network around the world.
Clothing: The Hausa people have a restricted dress code related to their religions beliefs the men are easily recognizable because of their elaborate dress which is large flowing gown known as "Babhan riga and a rob called a "Jalabia and Jhann". The men also wear colourful embroidered caps known as 'Hula'. Depending on their location and occupation.
The women can be identified by wrappers called Zalm made with colourful cloth atampa accompanied by a matching blouse, head tie and shawl.
Food: The most common food that the Hausa people prepare consist of grains, such as sorghum, millet, rice, or maize, which are group into flour for a variety of different kinds of dishes. This food is popularly known as "tuwo" in the Hausa language. Usually, breakfast consists of cakes made from wheat flour soaked for a day fried and served with sugar known as funkaso. Both of these can be served with porridge and sugar known as kunu or koko. Lunch or dinner usually feature a heavy porridge with soup and stew known as tuwo da miya. The soup and stew are prepared with ground or chopped tomatoes, onions, and a local pepper sauce called daffaoo. Beans, peanuts and milk are also served as a complementary protein diet for the Hausa people. The most famous of all food is most likely suya, a spicy shish herbal, like steward meat which is a popular food item in various part of Nigeria and is enjoyed as a delicacy in much of West African and balangu of gasshu. A dried version of suya is called "killishi".
Both.............. (kokowa) and boxing (dumb) are popular traditional sport among the Hausa people.
The region and location where Hausa is spoken as a lingua Franca includes: Kano, Zaria, Sokoto, Kastina, and Bauchi.
Hausa language has different dialect variation i.e.
Eastern Hausa dialects includes
Kahana:        Spoken in Kano
Bausana:        Spoken in Bauchi
Daurearl:        Spoken in Daura
Guddurranci:    Spoken in Karraguan
Kutebanci:        Spoken in Taraba
Western dialect includes:
Sakiwatanci:    Spoken in Sokoto
Katsinaci:        Spoken in Kastina
Arewanci:        Spoken in Gabir, Kabbi, and Zamfara
Kurhwayana:    Spoken in Kurfey in Niger
Zazzagene:        Spoken in Zaria and is the major souther dialect and the Daura, Durach, and Hana, Hannah dialect are the standard Hausa dialect.
1.0.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF HAUSA ENGLISH CODE MIXING
The European colonization of African brought about the imposition of English by Britain as a lingua franca on largely fragmented ethno-linguistics group that make up the language of colonial administration and education. Developing some level of competence both in written and spoken English became necessary to secure employment especially in the civil service. The importance of English became over emphasized to the detriment of our indigenous language in the case of English in Hausa land was so much valued because if portrays one is educated in the modern way that a competent user of English was accorded so much respect and recognition among his people this desire to show that one is learned in the modern way lead to frequent code mixing.
1.1.3CONCEPT OF CODE MIXING
Code mixing refers to any admixtures of linguistics element of two or more language systems. In the same utterance of various level, phonological, lexical, grammatical, syntactic, and orthographical in essence. Code mixing may be more adequately seen as occurring as a kind of intra-sentential switching.
Caron (2002) in his paper "zaor - Hausa - English, code mixing" examine how a minority language that is healthy is used in two different contexts.
An urban context with educated speakers who are fluent in two main language of the area (English and Hausa).
A rural context with speakers who hardly speaks a words of pidgin English but are quite fluent in Hausa with the interest of revealing the process at work in borrowing and grammaticalization.
1.0.4 BILINGUALISM
Is commonly defined as the use of at least two language by an individual (Asha 2004). It is a fluctuating system in children and adults where by use of and proficiency in two language may change depending on the opportunities to use the language and exposure to other users of the language. The bilingual speaker has at least two codes in his/her verbal purposes in a given sociolinguistic context. The sociolinguistics context determines when and why it is appropriate to use one code or the other and when is appropriate to combine both for some definable function.
The code of the bilingual include at least in the case of former British colonies in Nigeria for example, the vernacular and the former transplanted language. Poplach (1982) defines it as the ordinary or everyday language and Kachru (1982:27) define vernacular as the mother tongue thus the bilingual language should be viewed as constituting a functional hierarchy in which both the transplant code and the vernacular have very specific role to play in Hausa context, the transplanted code e.g. (English and Hausa) occupies the top line in the hierarchy. Thus it is usually perceived as more prestigious than the code at the bottom line the vernacular as a consequence of such a hierarchy. The vernacular uses more linguistic items from transplanted code.
1.1.5 CODE MIXING AND PRAGMATIC
Studies of pragmatic aspect of code-mixing have basically been concern with issues such as the following:
a)    What are the factors that contribute to the surface manifestation of code mixing and the domain or settings. Why do bilingual tend to mix the language available to them.
b)    It has been argued in the literature that code mixing in bilingual speech can be triggered by various factor. Some of these are linguistic, while others are extra-linguistic (e.g Gumper 1982 Karch 1933) linguistic factor have to do with the bilingual individual himself and the language available to him those factor include, for example the bilingual attitude towards the code at his/her disposal.
    Extra-linguistic factor include the participant (i.e. the person (i.e. the person involved in the interaction) the topic ( i.e. the subject of the interaction (e.g. grades, football, Halloween, etc.) and the setting (i.e. the place the interaction took place e.g. church, school, home.
    Domain for code mixing
    By domains for code mixing refers to the social setting in which the bilingual lives and in which  he carries out his daily activities.
1.1.6 CODE MIXING AND PSYCHOLINGUISTIC
    Has been concerned with deterring first, whether code mixed utterances take longer to process than monolingual utterances. Second how code mixed utterances are generated.
    With respect to the first issue earlier studies propose that the processing of code mixing take longer time while recent studies disagree that it does not. It has been observed that earlier studies were biased because they used haphazardly arranged code mixing utterance to meet the investigator's hypothesis concerning this topic.
1.1.7CODE MIXING AND SYNTACTIC
    Syntax is the arrangement of words and phrases to create well formed sentence in a language. From a syntactic point of view Code mixing has mainly been concerned with determining whether code mixing is random or rule governed and if code is rule governed, what is the nature of restriction which govern its occurrence. In bilingual speech related to this issue in determining whether there universal constraint on code mixing while many studies agree that code mixing cannot random and that there are constraint on where a code mix can or cannot occur in a code mixed sentence. there seem to be no census at all regarding the characterization and quantification of such constraint. As a consequence, there has been a liferation of constraints on code mixing for the last fifteen years age.
I.2.    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
    In the area where Hausa is spoken as lingual franca (Nigeria) this research seeks to examine the phenomena of code mixing properly therefore identify the reason or factor responsible for code mixing in Hausa - English language. Recent studies has overtime revealed the gaps in Hausa language  which most times prompt the speaker to resort to bridging those gaps with English terminologies.
•    What are the form, meaning, and reasons of using code mixing and the English code found in Hausa lexicon.
•    What situation do an Hausa bilingual use code (formal and informal) and the types of code and pattern of code mixing.
1.3    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
    The purpose of the research is to the study of sociolinguistic and linguistic with regard to the effect of code mixing of English - Hausa language
1.    It presents and explain the phenomenon of code mixing and to identify the reason and context in which code mixing is used in Hausa - English sentence and the factor responsible.
2.    It analyses and describe the forms, meaning and reason of using code mixing and the English code found in Hausa lexicon.
3.    To analyze the speech of Hausa - English bilingual in formal and informal situation, identify the types of pattern of mixing in the situation, and examining whether the mixing of the two language (Hausa and English( depend on the contrasting syntactic property of the language involved.
1.4    SIGNIFICANCE AND JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
    The study is of great importance to the study of social linguistic, student of English and the Hausa community. Because it seeks to examine the factors, contribution, and both the negative and positive effect of code mixing of Hausa - English bilingual. The significance of this study is to encourage the language teacher to do more in encouraging students to communicate in one language at a time, this I believe will help to reduce the incidence of code mixing among the Hausa English bilingual as well as the development of Hausa language and also develop competence in English language.
    It will also encourage the Hausa lexicographers on working diligently to fulfil the lexical gap created by science and technology.
1.5    METHODOLOGY
    This study adopts the primary and secondary method of data collection, the primary method is used to collect data from respondents. And the secondary method of data collection is used to collect data from textbooks, journals etc. The primary data collection which is oral, interview and participatory observation. The secondary method would be carried out in the library. The method that will be used in this research will not be that employed in teaching, broadcasting, Motor Park, and daily communication uses in the day to day activities of an Hausa- English bilingual.
    Hausa language is the mother tongue of the researcher thus data collection involve my knowledge of Hausa language with other competent Hausa - English bilingual. The data to be used for this study will be tape recording and later transcribed into writing
    The occurrence of code mixing shall be noted in the speech of ten to fifteen individuals who are Hausa - English bilingual, young and old, female and male, educated and uneducated persons. The data shall be collected over a period of two week, two persons per day at different location, formal occasion, conversation with friends and at the motor parks. Discussion among different groups like university students, college of education student, traders, Hausa home video etc.
    Instances of code mixing would also be noted down immediately they are heard. Some respondents were interviewed on why they code mix.
1.6 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS
    This work will adopt sociolinguistic approach of code mixing among Hausa/English bilingual. We would be making use of Hoffman (1962) types and reason for code-mixing and additional reason giving by Saville - Troike (1968:690).

EFFECTS OF CODE MIXING ON HAUSA-ENGLISH LANGUAGE BILINGUALS

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Type Project
Department Linguistics and Communication
Project ID LAC0085
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 69 Pages
Methodology Primary and Secondary data
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Linguistics and Communication
    Project ID LAC0085
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 69 Pages
    Methodology Primary and Secondary data
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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