THE EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON EMPLOYEES’ PRODUCTIVITY
(A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK NIGERIA PLC, AKPAKPAVA BRANCH)
The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of job satisfaction on employees’ productivity. Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. It is a relatively recent term since in previous centuries the jobs available to a particular person were often predetermined by the occupation of that person’s parent. There are a variety of factors that can influence a person’s level of job satisfaction. Some of these factors include the level of pay and benefits, the perceived fairness of the promotion system within a company, the quality of the working conditions, leadership and social relationships, the job itself (the variety of tasks involved, the interest and challenge the job generates, and the clarity of the job description/requirements).The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous workgroups. Job satisfaction is a very important attributes which is frequently measured by organizations. The research recommends that the best way of measurement should be the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs. Questions relating to pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities, work itself, relationship between workers organization were asked.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page i
Title Page ii
Table of contents viii
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis 6
1.6 Significance of the study 6
1.7 The scope of the study 6
1.8 Limitations of the Study 7
1.9 Definition of Terms 7
2.1 Introduction 8
2.2 Concept of job satisfaction 8
2.3 Job environment and job satisfaction 9
2.4 Job commitment and job satisfaction 10
2.5 Models of job satisfaction 11
2.6 The impact of dissatisfaction of workers in an organization 15
2.7 Steps to improve employee satisfaction 16
2.8 Motivation theories and their implications for managers 18
2.9 Vroom expectancy theory 19
2.10 Abraham Maslow theory of human motivation 21
2.11 Models of a job satisfaction affect theory 22
3.1 Introduction 24
3.2 Area of the Study 24
3.3 Population of the Study 24
3.4 Sampling Size and Techniques 25
3.5 Source of Data Collection 26
3.6 Tools for Data Collection 27
3.7 Validity and Reliability of the Study 27
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Introduction 28
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis 28
4.3 Research Questions 29
4.4 Testing of Hypotheses 31
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of Findings 35
5.2 Conclusion 36
5.3 Recommendation 37
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Job dissatisfaction among workers has been a bone of contention and most researched variable among management and human resource researchers (Dhammika, Ahmad, & Sam, 2001). The world is a global village, job seekers expect to be engaged in an organization that provide adequate work environment, free of environmental hazards, well ventilated, and secured thereby leading to job satisfaction. Essentially, researchers in the fields of organizational behaviour and management opined that the conceptual framework of the phenomena (satisfaction) is complex, indescribable and mythical (Malik, 2011). It has been argued that organizations cannot be at their best until workers are committed to the organizational goals and objectives (Dixit and Bhati, 2012). However, the degree to which workers are satisfied with their jobs vary and subject to factors such as job environment, work hours and schedules, reward system, (Osibanjo, Abiodun, and Fadugba, 2012). In other words, workers’ commitment can be described as a function of job satisfaction, which implies that workers could be committed in delivering their services when they are satisfied with their jobs and this may be influenced by job environment. Job environment include workers’ immediate vicinity where they carry out their assignments (Chapins, 1995); achieve management perceived and expected results (Shikdar, 2002, Mike, 2010). Job environment entails some basic features that tend to make workers satisfy on their job amongst which include; easy accessibility, ventilation, ergonomic furniture, cooling system, (Humphries, 2005; Veitch, Charles, Newsham, Marquardt & Geerts, 2004); and these have positive impact on workers’ health (Dilani, 2004; Milton, Glencross & Walters, 2000). With the understanding that job formed an integral part of workers’ life, it is therefore essential for workers to seek its satisfaction in order to be able to render their services without reservation, which tends to increase productivity at both employee and organizational levels. Job satisfaction as an independent variable can be influenced by other variables such as wages, benefits, job security, work type, family and so on.
Workers plight in the country today has left many well meaning Nigeria with many question some of these questions are how to satisfy our workers in their various establishments.
Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job.
The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance; methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work groups. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. The most common way of measurement is the use of rating scaled where employees report their reactions to their jobs. Questions relate to rate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunity the work itself and co-workers.
Employees have adopted mass retrenchment as only visible solution to solve the problem.
Obviously the truth is that there is no more job satisfaction among workers and employer. The reasons being that unsatisfied feelings and measured nature of their job. In the light of the above circumstance, it will be very difficult. If not possible for workers facing the delima to dedicate and committed to their job.
It will be very difficult for such employer to integrate their corporate objective with the individual workers.
The moment workers objective collided with organizational objectives this will led to bifurcation of objective.
This term bifurcation of objective is very dangerous in both productivity and industrial harmony. It is simply means that workers personal interest is vigorously pursed.
How ever this study is based on the first three human needs theory propounded by Maslow. These are the physiological needs, safety needs, esteem need, belonging need of Abraham Maslow.
It is important to hold a constant factor other than the nature of work in company device, from hob varying in level of skills and complexing, since job satisfaction is very greatly in the satisfaction and degree of commitment.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Poor job satisfaction coupled with low employee effects productivity in an organization. Again, we have basic human nature at workplace. When employees are unhappy, they do not focus well and they do not pay attention to their tasks. They find hundreds of other things to do that could give them satisfaction. When one member of a team displays low productivity, it is only natural for other members of the team to feel dissatisfied as a result, and their productivity will begin to decline as well. It is a vicious cycle that is common in most organizations.
Low job satisfaction also creates high turnover rates with employees. Sooner or later, the employee is going to quit so that they can find a job that gives them much satisfaction. Many industries such as banks industry suffer from high turnover rates and the inability to retain qualified workers. It is up to small business owners and managers to find a way to increase job satisfaction, particularly in difficult industries in which the jobs are tough and the pay is low.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study is designed to investigate the effect of employees’ job satisfaction on organizational productivity in the selected business enterprise in with view to identifying issues and prospect as the affects.
1. To find out whether job satisfaction affect employees’ productivity
2. To find out whether employees’ satisfaction depends on adequate compensation.
3. To find out if there is any relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ morale.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
It is the objective of this study to know if:
1. Does job satisfaction affect employees’ productivity?
2. Does employees’ satisfaction depend on adequate compensation?
3. Is there any relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ morale?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho: Job satisfaction doe not affect employees’ productivity
Hi: Job satisfaction affects employees’ productivity
Ho: Employees’ satisfaction does not depend on adequate compensation.
Hi: Employees’ satisfaction depends on adequate compensation.
Ho: There is no relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ morale.
Hi: There is relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ morale.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings from the study serve as a reference for future researchers who may while wish to explore the subject. This will enable them to get feedback regarding the effectiveness of the subsequent policy formulation and planning.
The employee themselves will find this study very useful it will the need arise. The motivational tendency of workers to feel that their effort and welfare have been recognized in an organization.
It will also give the employees the idea of what to expect the management to do for them and also serve as a guide enabling them set limit to their unnecessary demands.
The employee will serve the effort of any of the management and restores sanity to organization productivity. The workers used for the study should not only be useful at a practical level but all in the theory where it would assist in propagating knowledge in workers job satisfaction. It would also constitute a useful and interesting text in library. The study would also provide a data base for future research work.
1.7 THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study was limited to the effect of job satisfaction on organizational productivity using Union Bank as a case study. The area therefore, is Union Bank Plc, Akakpava in which useful data where gather for the research study.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
There is no gain saying that there are no limitations in research work generally. Any shortcoming that arises in this study is as a result of factors which are beyond the researcher’s control.
Therefore, it will be of more importance to highlight certain militating factors that tend to narrow or limit my scope of study. This project research would have been easier if not for these limitating factors:
1. Time factor: time was not on the researchers to consult various sectors of the economy to review employees or given out questionnaire to various institutions on the effect of government revenue policies.
As we all know, time is never our friend. The time scheduled for the completion of this research thesis was too short. As a result, generating information/data was strenuous as it coincides with final year examination period, which needed attention.
2. Finance: this is another barrier that limited the researcher’s work.
3. Available resources: was unavailable for the research work.
1.9 THE DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Drive - The motivational to act or carry out an action.
2. Emotion - The inward feelings for outward observation.
3. Job satisfaction - The total body of felling that an individual has about his job.
4. Ethic - The professional rules or code of doing job.
5. Corporate objective - the company set goal.
6. Bifurcation of objective - When the corporate objective conflict with the workers objectives.
7. Conceptualized - this means the imagination and visualized the presence of something in presence.
8. Interesting - The job or satisfaction and desire from doing something he likes.