THE IMPACT OF MASS MEDIA CAMPAIGN AGAINST AIDS AMONG TEENAGERS
(A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE)
This study is aimed to ascertain the impact of mass media campaign aimed curbing the spread of the diseases AIDS among teenagers in Enugu state. The objective of the study is also to find out through survey method whether the teenager are really getting sufficient information about AIDS blue so as to enable them inform their opinion about the diseases. The study took account of the sex, marital status, occupational variables that were of relevance to the study. The researcher use survey method with questionnaire, interview as the test instrument so as get al the responses needed in this study. This no doubt, helped on collecting information as to the way people generally perceived the disease Aids its were to Nigeria since the mid 1980s.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of study
1.2 Statement of the Research Problems
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4The Significance of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Research Hypothesis
1.8 Limitation of the study
1.9 Definition of Terms
2.1 Source of Literature
2.2 The Review
2.3 AIDS; Social Implications of the Campaign
2.4 Theoretical Framework
2.5 Media Impact on Audience
2.6 The Media and Attitude Change
2.7 Campaign against AIDS, Strategies and
2.4 Summary of Literature Review
3.1 Research Method
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Research Sample
3.4 Measuring Instrument
3.5 Data Collection
3.6 Data Analysis
4.1 Data analysis and analysis
4.2 Testing of Hypothesis and Results
Summary of Finding, Conclusions, Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
The media has been established to provide for their audience, information on varieties of issues. By emphasizing certain topic stressing particular interpretation and projects specific themes the media creates some distorted impression with their “ definition” portraying reflection of the real society ie if sexual promiscuity is regularly portrayed as widely practices and accepted in this sense, the viewers may accept such definition as normative in the society because of media definition when somebody defines his/ her own over behavior in such a situation norms internalized from media sources may guide his conduct.
Simple by their presence, the mass media have altered the nature of social communication norm large audience have been created that expect the media to provide political commentary and other message. People depend on the media for various forms of gratification based upon contend. If denied such communication, they feel deprived.
Benelson, (2000). Even in relatively underdeveloped societies, population quickly develops. Societies habit once mass communication become available to them in the way they understand. People become aware of events outside their immediate experience.
People according to Walter lippman (2003) act upon basis of the pictures in our head rather than the reality of the world outside.
We have learned through research that the images and words the media carry, television, radio and newspapers determines within the limitation posed by intervening factors, open by people and their actions.
It is believed that in the imperfect world, there is no single antidote to human ills but public state is often a vital step finding that cure for many social ills. In this line therefore, it is believed that extensive impact of media and true information on the AIDS campaign will be read and perhaps touch on the sexual habit of people. When a disease is sexual transmitted, the publicity effort to eradicate it is fortified. AIDS is the worst disease to hit human race since the black plague of the 114th century. Already, 25 million unsuspected people have caught this disease and do not know it, and might not know it for years. (Van Impe: 1989: 1)
Historical Aspect of AIDS
The devastating disease “Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) came into word limelight in 1981 when Dr. Michael Goltiels of the University of Califonia noted an unusual disease paemocystics Cabini Pnemnia, in four patients that were homosexual and all below 40 years age (Njoku Obi 1989).
It is not yet known where AIDS actually started. It was a disgrace to the scientific community that the emergence of AIDS brought with a lot of buck passing as regards to the origin of the disease.
The World Health Organization (WHO) explained it to be a virus of undermined geographic origin”. The first case of AIDS were identified in the US and was first recognized in Uganda in 1982. The virus disease AIDS is a relatively new arrived in Nigeria at least compared to many other countries. According to WHO Global 1988 AIDS / incidence inventory, the number of reported case of AIDS was in Nigeria than other countries of the world.
The African concord magazine who have developed full below AIDS in Nigeria as approximately 8,000 men and women, many of would have died . in the same issue, Dr. Olukove Ransome Kiti, then the minister of health, is quote as saying. Even if we are able to prevent further transmission of the virus, we will expect about 69,000 adult and 39,000 pediatric AIDS case between 1991 and 1999. The rate of spread varies from country to country.
AIDS case firstly was reports in 1984 in Niarobi, Kenya. Apparently, AIDS came from monkeys in Africa. It was a species barriers from animal to humans. This virus has grave on human beings rather than in the moneys that have it.Medical experts believe that the green monkeys of African passed their centivinis to human through bitig and beatiality. Shocking have committed such acts with animals (Vanlmpe 1987:29).
Next infected men engaged other men in sexual acts, and the virus spread like wide fire and no homosexuals international. Scores of such men even of their homes and filled their wives with he viruses.
Risk: A single exposure is suficial for a person to contact Aids.
Prognosis: Current statistic suggests that if a person becomes HIV positive there is a 60 percent chance of developing AIDS within 7years.
Distribution: AIDS is a world wide disease so terrifying and devastating. AIDS is seen equally in both men and women especially the prostitutes and their customers.
The spread is mainly heterosexual profit Njioku Obi (1989) noted Zaire, Bunindi, Pwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi as the African AIDS Belt”. However, Newyork, Los Angels and Sanfranciso have called the AIDS centers of the Western World.
Actilogy: AIDS is caused by a retrovirus, Retrovirus like other virus reproduce only in living cells of a host species.
Mode of Transmission
HIV has been isolated from Blood, Semen, Vaginal secretion and other body fluid including tears. However, transmission is through sexual relationship, blood transfusion and use of stinger incubation period.
It takes on the average an interval of 29 months, 12months between exposure to the virus and manifestation of AIDS in adult and children respectively.
Scope of the Disease
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a sexually transmitted years has spread through the present lack of vaccine for prophylaxis, or drugs for one.
The AIDS virus infects cells in the brain and causes what is known as dementia, or brain disease.
People who have this suffer from impaired short term memory, mental confusion, personality, they may succumb to paranoia, some times psychoses, mutism (they become unable to speak) in continence they have loss of muscular contra and finally coma and death (Van Impe, 1987).
The World health organization (WHO) has taken the bull by the horn. It is in the media of world wide they attempt to control of the disease. AIDS which for appeared to be a disease affecting mainly the homosexually population has become a scourage affecting people of every race and life styles.
International new releases from countries of the world reported that; aids is spreading like wide fire, countries like Austrialia, America and Switzerland reports the severity of the disease. Millions dies from AIDS. There have been other plagues throughout history millions died because of Spanish influenza, bulbonic plague, and yellow fever, small pox, polio, multiple scterosis and cancer. However, sensible way of stopping the spread of AIDS is through dissemination of information and deliberate education, combined with personal changing life style, there has been public health measures take.
1The Nigeria situation
Up to the end of 2003, over 20million of Nigeria have proved positive for AIDS. The truth is that the disease is spreading fast. It is worthy to note that with the above figure. That about 150 people get infected per week in Nigeria. More than 15 million or 80percent are female while the remaining 20 percent are male. Beside, 15percent out of the 80percent are female children under the age of ten, while 8 out of the 20percent are male children under the age of ten years also.
Researcher prove that adult infected AIDS victims fall within the age range of 18-45 years which is the prime age of like.
1.2 Statement of the Research Problems
The role of mass media in a society cannot be over emphasized. It gives beyond the ordinary art and science of new gathering and dissemination to shaping opinions and attitude of people accurate analysis and interpretation of news event through their information education entertaining and socializing function the mass media affect people attitude and behavior (Graham mitten 1983 32). The mass media set agenda for public discussion by chronicling news event within the society. The mass media, no doubt, has changed or altered our culture. New products, advertised to millions via television , magazines, radio and newspapers, can achieve wife spread adoption almost overnight. The rapid spread of other cultural forms, such as speech mannerism, fades ,of all kinds, and other innovative preteens, can be trigged by the media.
Different mass media are effective at different points in different ways. The mass mess only crate awareness while the face to face communication bring about change. Both are complementary. But eagle and others observed that when the audience is large, it usually necessary to accept the inefficiencies of mass communication (Eagle, 1970:29).
This implies that the mass have shortcoming which to not produce their effectiveness no matter how minimal at bringing about social change. Lazars field and Katz radio, television and print to opinion leaders and from them to the less active sections of the population, it therefore mass that those who cannot be reached by the three media could benefit from interpersonal flow of information or the innovation (field and katz 1955).
Macgurrie (1969), observed that the measured impact of the mass media as regard persuasiveness seems quite slight. A tremendous among of applied research has carried out to test the effectiveness of the news media messages. The out come which he said been guide embarrassing for ,proponents of mass media.
In view of thus perceived short coming, it therefore, becomes very necessary to take a hoard work at the role of the mass media campaign against AIDS vis - a Vis their impact among the teenagers in Enugu state. However, research is a systematic search of knowledge the media of wich a primary to find solution to existing problem determines the direction of the study. Therefore the problem this work aims at solving are
a. To determine the major sources of information regarding to AIDS.
b. To impact exposure to HIV/AIDS campaign on the sexual behavior of the people in Enugu metropolis.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The primary aim of thus study is to examine the extent to which mass media campaign against AIDS has affected and influenced attitude and behavioral change towards sex. Influence here , will therefore, be regarded as the ability of the campaign against Aids message carried by the mass media to induce the teenagers to change their behaviours to sexual to promiscuity and help them also know more about AIDS and suggested preventive measures.
The study is interested in the audience the teenager. Do their sex and age affected the way they perceived the message. Are they really getting the information (Exposure) has their level of education got some thing to do with their behavior and attitudes to sexual matter.
1.4 The Significance of the Study
It is envisaged that the outcome of the study will help to alert teenage population on the dangers inherent in AIDS and equally contribute to existing literature in the area of mass media impact.
Also the study will help health ministry to determine which of the mass media to employ in disseminating AIDS information.
Above all, it is hoped that the study will further equip mass media practitioners, communication n experts and researchers to come up with a concrete and more futuristic approach to covering all manner of campaign without much to in Nigeria.
1.5 Research Questions
1. Do people get most information about AIDS through the mass media?
2. Does campaign against AIDS relate to the use of condom during social intercourse amongst teenagers?
3. Does exposure against AIDS campaign discourage teenagers from sexual promiscuity?
4. Do teenager who are single expose themselves?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
1. Hi Most respondent will get information about AIDS from the mass media more than other source.
Ho: Most respondent will not get information about AIDS from the through mass media more than other source .
2. H2: Teenagers who are Exposure to campaign against AIDS are likely to use condom and abstain from sex than those who are not.
3. Ho: Teenagers who are to exposure to campaign against AIDS are likely to use condom and abstain from sex than those who are not.
3. H3: Teenagers who are expose to campaign against AIDS will tend to discourage from sexual promiscuity.
H0: Teenagers who are not expose to campaign against AIDS will not be discourage from sexual promiscuity.
H4: Teenagers who are not single will expose themselves to campaign against AIDS more than teenagers who are married.
H0: Teenagers who are single will not expose themselves to campaign against AIDS more than teenagers who are single.
An assumption is a phenomenon or event that can be measured or manipulated and is used in the development of constructs. They are concepts that have been assigned values.
Two set of assumption are identified in this research topic (a) Media impact as independent assumption (b) Sex as dependent variable.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The conceptual and operational definition of terms in the study
Mass Media: - in this context refers to various communication channels (specifically a radio television and newspapers) through which information regarding campaign against AID communication teenagers in Enugu state.
AIDS:- the four letters AIDS shorts for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The word immune refer to the defense system of the body which helps the body to fight all kind of infections. This system does not work well in AIDS
Campaign Against AIDS:- those attempt through the radio, television and newspapers aimed at curbing further spread of AIDS.
Media Impact: The range of new death with by the media
Sex: sexual activities amongst the teenagers men
and women in Enugu between male and female and a man and a man (homosexual).
Teenagers: young men and women in Enugu
state, both indigene and non indigene who in the age of is - 40 years
Mass media: This refers as source of information and
news such as news papers, magazines radio and television that reach and influence large number of people.
Media impact: It refers to how effective the campaign
will be through the various media outlet (eg television, internet, news papers and magazines.
AIDS: a deadly infection disease Campaign against
AIDS: Series of planned information to publicized AIDS and preventives measures
Sex: The activities surrounding, centering and
leading to coitus
Teenagers: Collectively of young men and women
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