THE IMPACT OF MASS MEDIA CAMPAIGN AGAINST AIDS AMONG TEENAGERS.
A CASE STUDY OF BENIN CITY
This study is aimed to ascertain the impact of Mass Media Campaign aimed at curbing the spread of the disease Aids among teenagers in Benin City.
The objective of the study is also to find out through sample survey whether the teenagers are really getting sufficient information about AIDS blue so as to enable them inform their opinion about the diseases.
The study look account of the sex, marital status, “Occupational variables that were of relevance to the study.
The researcher use survey method in execution of the study.
This no doubt, helped on collecting information as to the way people generally perceived the disease AIDS its wave to Nigeria since the mid 1980s.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The media, as has been established, can provide for audience member a “definition of the situation” on a variety of issues. By emphasizing certain topics, the mass media create some distorted impressions with their “definition” portraying a reflection of the red society. For example, if sexual promiscuity regularly portrayed as widely practiced, an individual would define his own behaviour in such a situation as norms internalized. This would guide his conduct.
Simply by their presence, the mass media have altered the nature of societal communication norm. large audience have been created that expect the media to provide a continuous flow of news, entertainment, political commentary and other message. People depend on the media for various forms of gratification based upon content. If denied such communication, they feel deprived.
(Benelson, 1950, 889-898). Even in relatively underdeveloped societies, population quickly develop. Media related habit once mass communication become available to them in form they understand. People become aware of events outside their immediate experience.
People according to walter Lippman (1922) act upon basis of “the pichires in our head”, rather than the reality of the world outside.
We have learned through research that the images and words the media carry, Television, Radio and Newspapers” determines within the limitation posed by intervening factors, open of people and the their actions.
It is believed that in the imperfect world, there is no single antidote to human ills but publicity is often a vital step to finding the cure for many social ills. In this line therefore, it is believed that extensive impact of media and true information on the AIDS Campaign will read and perhaps touch on the sexual habit of people. When a disease is sexually transmitted, the publicity and effort to eradicate. It is fortified. AIDS is the worst disease to hit human race since the Black Plague of the 114th Century. already, 25 million unsuspecting people have caught this awful disease and do not know it, and might not know it for years. (van Impe: 1989: Pg. 1)
1.2 HISTORICAL ASPECT OF AIDS
The devastating disease “Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome “(AIDS) came into word limelight in 1981 when Dr Michael Gottiels of the university of califonia noticed an unusual disease PAEMOCYSTICS CABINII PNEMNIA, in four patients that were homosexual and all below 40 years of age (NJOKU OBI 1989).
It is not yet known where AIDS actually started. It was a disgrace to the scientific community that the emergence of AIDS brought with it a lot of buck passing as regards to the origin of the disease.
The world Health Organization (WHO) explained it to be a virus of “undermined geographic origin”. The first case of AIDS were identified in the U.S. and was first recognized in Uganda in 1982. the virus disease AIDS is a relatively new arrival in Nigeria- at least compared to many other countries According to WHO Global 1988 AIDS/incidence Inventory, the number of reported case of AIDS was in Nigeria than other countries of the world.
The African concord magazine who have developed full below AIDS in Nigeria as approximately 8,000 men and women, many of would have dies. In the same issue, Dr Olukove Ransome-Kiti, then the minister of health, is quote as saying: Even if we are able to prevent further transmission of the virus, we will expect about 69,000 adult and 39,000 pediatric ADIS cases between 1991 and 1999. the rate of spread varies from country to country.
AIDS cases firstly was reported in 1984 in Niarobi, Kenya. Apparently, AIDS came from monkeys in Africa. It was a species barriers from animal to humans. This virus has grave on human beings rather than in the monkeys that have it.
Medical experts believe that the green moneys of African passed their centivinis to human through biting and bestiality. Shocking have committed such acts with animals ( van impe 1987:29).
Next infected men engaged other men in sexual acts, and the virus spread like wide-fire and no homosexuals internationally. Scores of such men even_______________ of their homes and filled their wives with the viruses.
RISK; A single exposure is suficial for a person to contact AIDS.
PROGNOSIS; current statistic suggest that if a person becomes HIV positive, there is a 60 percent chance of developing AIDS within 7 years.
DISTRIBUTION; AIDS is a worldwide disease so terrifying and devastating. AIDS is seen equally in both men and women especially the prostitutes and their customers. The spread is mainly heterosexual. Prof. Njioku Obi (1989) noted Zaire, Bunindi, Pwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi as the “Afican AIDS Belt” However, New York, Los Angels and San Franciso have been called the Aids centers of the Western World’.
Aetilogy: AIDS is caused by a retrovirus, Retrovirus like other virus, Retrovirus like other virus reproduce only in living cells of a host species.
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
HIV has been isolated from Blood, Semen, Vaginal Sectretions and other body fluid including breast milk, saliva and possibly tears. However, transmission is through sexual relationship, blood transfusion and use of stinger incubation period.
It takes on the average an interval of 29 months 12 months between exposure to the virus and manifestation of AIDS in adult and children respectively.
1.3 SCOPE OF THE DISEASE.
Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a sexually transmitted disease which is less than fifteen years has spread through the present lack of vaccine for prophylaxis, or drugs for one.
The AIDS virus infects cells in the brain and causes what is known as Dementia, or brain disease. People who have this suffer from impaired short-term memory, mental confusion, personality, they may succumb to paranoia, sometimes psychoses, mutism (they become unable to speak) in continence (they have loss of muscular contra) and finally coma and death (van Impe, 1987).
The world health Organization (WHO) has taken the bull by the horn. It is in the media of world wide they attempt to control of the disease. AIDS which for appeared to be a disease affecting mainly the homosexual population has become a scourge affecting people of every race and life-styles.
1.4 GLOBAL SITUATION
International news releases from countries of the worls reported that; AIDS is spreading like wide fire, countries like Australia, America and Switzerland reports the severity of this disease. Millions dies from AIDS. There have been other plagues throughout history. Millions died because of Spanish influenza, bulbonic plague, and yellow- fever, small pox, polio, multiple scterosis and cancer. However, sensible way of stopping the spread of AIDS is through dissemination of information and deliberate education, combined with personal changing life style, there has to be public health measures take.
1.5 THE NIGERIAN SITUATION
Up to the end of 2003, ever 20 millions of Nigerian have proved positive for AIDS.
The truth is that the diseases is spreading fast. It is worthy to note that with the above figure. That about 150 people get infected per week in Nigeria. More than 15 million or 80 percent are female while the remaining 20 percent are male. Beside, 15 percent out of the 80 percent are female children under the age of ten. While 8 out of the 20 percent are male children under the age of ten years also.
Researcher proved that the adult infected AIDS victims fall within the age range of 18-45 years which is the prime age of like.
1.6 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
The role of mass media in any society cannot be ever emphasized. It goes beyond the ordinary art and science of news gathering and dissemination to shaping opinions and attitudes of people via proper and accurate analysis and interpretation of news events. Through their information, education, lentering, and socializing function of Mass Media Impact people’s attitude and behaviour (Grahamen Mytton 1983:32).
The mass media set agenda for public discussion by chronicling news event within the society. The mass media, no doubt, has changed or altered our culture. New products, advertised to millions via television, magazines, radio and newspapers, can achieve wide spread adoption almost overnight. The rapid spread of other cultural forms, such as speech mannerism, fades of all kinds, and other innovative patterns, can be trigged by the media.
Different Mass Media are effective at different points in different ways. The mass media only create awareness while the face to face communication bring about change. Beth are complementary. But Eagle and others observed that when the audience is large, it usually necessary to accept the inefficiencies of mass communication, (Eugle el al 19709: 29)
This implies that the mass have short-comings which do not produce their effectiveness no matter how minimal at bringing about social change. Lazars field and Katz Radio, television and print to opinion leaders and from them to the less active sections of the population: It therefore means that those who cannot be reached by the three media could benefit from interpersonal flow of information or the innovation. (field and Katz 1955).
Macgurire (1969), observed that the measured impact of the mass media as regard persuasiveness seems quite slight. A tremendous among of applied research has carried out to test the effectiveness of the news media messages…The out come which he said been quite embarrassing for proponents of mass media.
In view of this perceived shortcoming, it therefore, becomes very necessary to take a hrd work at the role of the mass media campaign against AIDS vis-à-vis their impact among the teenagers in Benin City.
However, research is a systematic search of knowledge the media of which a primarity to find solutions to existing problems (s). proper identification of a problem determines the direction of the study. Therefore, the problems this research work aims at solving are:-
a. To determines the major sources of information regarding to AIDS.
b. The impact of exposure to AIDS campaign among teenagers in Benin City
1.7 OBECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary aim of this study is to examine the extent to which mass media campaign against AIDS has affected and influenced attitude and behavioural change towards sex. Influence here, will therefore, be regarded as the ability of the campaign against Aids messages carried by the mass media to induce the teenagers to change their behaviours to sexual promiscuity) and help them also know more about AIDS and suggested preventive measures.
The study id interested in the audience ie the teenagers. Do their sex and age affect the way they perceive the messages?
Are they really getting the information (exposure) has their level of education got something to do with their behaviour and attitudes to sexual matters.
1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is envisaged that the outcome of the study will help to alert the teenagers population on the dangers inherent in AIDS and equally contribute to existing literature in the area of mas media impact.
Also, the study will help Health ministry to determine which of the mass media to employ in disseminating AIDS information.
Above all, it is hoped that the study will further equipm mass media practitioners, communication experts and researchers to come up with a concrete and more futuristic approach to covering all manners of campaign without much do in Nigeria.
1.9 RESEARCH QUAESTIONS
1. Do people get most information about AIDS through the mass media?
2. Does campaign against AIDS relate to the use of condom during sexual intercourse amongst teenagers?
3. Does exposure against AIDS campaign discourage teenagers from sexual promiscuity?
4. Do teenagers who are single expose themselves
2. MEDIA IMPACT:-
3. AIDS A deadly infectious disease
4. COMAPAIGN AGAINST AIDS; series of planned information to pulolicized AIDS and its preventive measures
5. SEX: The activities surrounding, centering on and leading to coitus.
6. TEENAGERS; collectively of young men and women
1. MASS MEDIA
In this context, refers to various communication channels (specifically a radio, television and newspapers) through which information regarding campaign against AIDA is communicated to teenagers in Benin City.
2. MEDIA IMPACT; The range of new death with by the media
The four letters AIDS stands for acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. The word Immune refer to the Defense system of the body which helps the body to fight all kinds of infections. This system does not work well in AIDS.
4. COMPAIGN AGAINST AIDS
Those attempt through the radio, television and newspapers aimed at curbing further spread of AIDS.
Sexual activities amongst the teenagers men and women in Benin between male and female and/or a men and a man (homosexual).
6. TEENAGERS:- young men and women using in Benin City, both indigene and no-indigene who in the age of 15-40 years.
An Assumption is a phenomenon or event that can be measured or manipulated and is used in the development of constructs. They are concepts that have been assigned values.
Two sets of assumptions are identifiable the research topics.
(a) Media Impact as i8mpendent Assumptions
(b) Sex as dependent variable.
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