AS-BUILT SURVEYING FOR THE FACILITY RETROFITTING OF AN OFFSHORE GAS PLANT USING LEICA SCANSTATION 2 HIGH DEFINITION SURVEYING INSTRUMENT

  • Type: Project
  • Department: Quantity Surveying
  • Project ID: QUS0088
  • Access Fee: ₦5,000 ($14)
  • Pages: 143 Pages
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 314
  • Report This work

For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
or
+234 8093 423 853

ABSTRACT 

3D as-built models have been utilized over the years as an aid to several engineering activities and there are conventional survey methods; e.g. Total Station ray method, photogrammetric technique etc., with which the data required for these models are generated. These methods have proven not to be optimal in capturing datasets required for the modeling of some complex engineering structures. The reasons for this been the intrusive nature of some of these methods and their point rather than surface sampling abilities.Others include the time taken to generate enough data as required and the average overall low accuracy achievable by these methods. This had led to several 3D models been a product of various degrees of interpolations and its attendance loss in model accuracy. High Definition Surveying (HDS) is a non-intrusive surveying method for collecting timely, accurate and complete geometric data of existing sites and structures.The HDS method has the capability of capturing tens of thousands of surface points in a second, making it very suitable for generating data required for the modeling of complex surfaces and structures. In this project, the ability and suitability of the HDS technique for use in complex and usually volatile oil and gas environments were proven as it was utilized for the production of the 3D model required as an aid for the retrofitting of an offshore gas platform. The Leica ScanStation 2 was deployed for the data capture alongside the Cyclone application program, the Cyclone program was also utilized for the processing of the measured data as well as production of a topologically and geometrically accurate 3D model of the required section of the platform. The produced model was subjected to some physical tests/checks to certify its correctness. Data interoperability was also achieved as the resulting 3D model as well as cloud of points were viewed and analyzed from various application programs e.g. AutoCAD. Further research was however recommended especially in the area of methods of quality assurance of completed models as the physical methods currently been utilized is not only slow, but also gives an indication of the presence of an error without giving an idea of its source and how it can be corrected.



Table of Contents

Approval Page - - - - - - - - - iv

Dedication Page - - - - - - - - - v

Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - - vi

Abstract - - - - - - - - - vii

Table of contents - - - - - - - - - viii

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - 1

1.2 Research Problem - - - - - - - - - 7

1.3 Significance of the Research - - - - - - - 8

1.4 Aim and Objectives - - - - - - - - 9

1.5 Study Area - - - - - - - - - 9

1.6 Scope - - - - - - - - - 10

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Theoretical Framework - - - - - - - 11

2.1.1 When can we use HDS? - - - - - - - 12

2.2 History of the Laser-Based Instruments - - - - - 12

2.3 Properties of the Laser - - - - - - - 13

2.3.1 Monochromaticity - - - - - - - 13

2.3.2 Directionality - - - - - - - - 14

2.3.3 Coherence - - - - - - - - 14

2.3.4 Brightness - - - - - - - - 15

2.3.5 Focusing of Laser Beam - - - - - - 15

2.4 Types of Laser - - - - - - - - 15

2.5 Operations of the Terrestrial Laser Scanner - - - - - 16

2.5.1 The Arbitrary or Local Surveys - - - - - 17

2.5.2 The Controlled Survey - - - - - - 18

2.6 Classification of Terrestrial Laser Scanners - - - - - 19

2.6.1 Classification based on the Measurement Principle - - - 20

2.6.1.1 Time of Flight (ToF) or Pulse-Based Scanners - - 20

2.6.1.2 Phase-Shift Measurement Scanners - - - - 22

2.6.1.3 Triangulation Measurement Scanners - - - 23

2.6.2 Classification based on Mode of Data Capture - - - 26

2.6.2.1 Static Laser Scanning - - - - - - 26

2.6.2.2 Dynamic Laser Scanning - - - - - 27

2.6.3 Classification based on the Beam Deflection System of Laser Scanners 27

2.6.3.1 Profiling System - - - - - - 27

2.6.3.2 Imaging System - - - - - - 28

2.6.3.2.1 Camera view - - - - - - 28

2.6.3.2.2 Panoramic view - - - - - - 29

2.7 Software for Data Evaluation - - - - - - - 30

2.7.1 Cyclone - - - - - - - - 31

2.7.1.1 Cyclone Modules - - - - - - 31

2.7.1.2 Cyclone™-SERVER - - - - - - 31

2.7.1.3 Cyclone Databases - - - - - - 32

2.7.1.4 Central Cyclone Server for Efficient Database Management - 32

2.7.2 3D IPSOS - - - - - - - - 32

2.7.2.1 Core Module - - - - - - - 32

2.7.2.2 Consolidation - - - - - - - 33

2.7.2.3 Reconstruction - - - - - - 33

2.7.3 Light Form Modeller - - - - - - - 33

2.7.3.1 LFM Modules - - - - - - 33

2.7.4 Other packages - - - - - - - 34

2.8 Registration - - - - - - - - - 35

2.8.1 Overview of Registration Methods - - - - - 35

2.8.1.1 Marker-based registration methods - - - - 36

2.8.1.2 Sensor-based registration methods - - - - 36

2.8.1.3 Data-driven registration methods - - - - 36

2.8.2 Registration with Control Points - - - - - 36

2.8.3 Registration with the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) Method - - 38

2.8.4 Indirect Registration & Geo-Referencing - - - - 39

2.8.4.1 Target-to-target registration - - - - - 39

2.8.4.2 Cloud-to-cloud registration - - - - - 39

2.8.4.3 Surface-to-surface registration - - - - 40

2.8.5 Direct Registration & Geo-Referencing - - - - 41

2.8.6 General Aspect of Registration and Geo-Referencing - - 41

2.9 Error Sources of Laser Scanning Points - - - - - 42

2.9.1 Scanning Geometry: - - - - - - - 42

2.9.2 Surface Properties: - - - - - - - 43

2.9.3 Instrument Calibration and Properties: - - - - 43

2.9.4 Environmental Conditions: - - - - - - 43

2.10 Safe Applications of the Laser Scanner - - - - - 44

2.10.1 Safety Rules for all Lasers, Regardless of Output Power Level - 47

2.10.2 Non-Beam Hazards Associated with Laser - - - - 48

2.11 Advantages of the Laser Scanning over the conventional techniques - 48

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 Literature Review - - - - - - - - 50

3.2 Drawbacks of the Laser Scanning Techniques - - - - 54

3.3 Laser Scanning in High Risk/Hazardous Environment - - - 57

3.4 Significant Application Gap Addressed - - - - - 58

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Methodology - - - - - - - - - 59

4.2 Measurement - - - - - - - - - 59

4.2.1 Survey Planning - - - - - - - 61

4.2.1.1 Determine the Survey Requirements and Understand the Job Specifications - - - - - - 61

4.2.1.2 Reconnaissance and Analysis of the area to be surveyed - 62

4.2.1.3 Determination and Selection of Optimal Scanning Locations 63

4.2.1.4 Choice of Targets, Determination/Selection of Optimal Target Locations, and Placement of Targets - - - - 65

4.2.1.5 Data Management Decisions - - - - - 66

4.2.2 Field Operations - - - - - - - 67

4.2.2.1 Survey Preparation - - - - - - 67

4.2.2.2 Setting up the Scanner - - - - - 68

4.2.2.3 Connecting the Scanner - - - - - 68

4.2.2.4 Scanner Settings - - - - - - 69

4.2.3 Data Acquisition - - - - - - - 70

4.2.3.1 Systematic Scanning of the Required Section of the Platform 70

4.2.3.2 Scanning and Acquisition of targets - - - - 71

4.2.3.3 Completeness Checking - - - - - 72

4.3 Data Processing using Cyclone - - - - - - 72

4.3.1 Data Preparation - - - - - - - 73

4.3.2 Registration and Geo-referencing - - - - - 73

4.3.2.1 Viewing the Cloud of Points Model - - - - 81

4.3.3 Data Filtering - - - - - - - - 82

4.3.4 Clouds Unification - - - - - - - 86

4.4 Modeling - - - - - - - - - 87

4.4.1 Components of the model - - - - - - 88

4.4.2 Production of 3D models or Direct 3D Modeling from Point Cloud 91

4.4.3 Modeling Procedures - - - - - - - 91

4.5 Data Interoperability and Conversion from Cyclone to other Third Party Software 104

4.5.1 Conversion/Export of Point Clouds - - - - - 105

4.5.2 Conversion/Export of 3D models - - - - - 107

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Results and Discussions - - - - - - - 108

5.1 Model views in AutoCAD environment - - - - - 109

5.2 Model views in Cyclone Environment - - - - - 111

5.3 Discussions - - - - - - - - - 116

CHAPTER SIX

6.0 Conclusion and Recommendations - - - - - - 118

References - - - - - - - - - - 120

AS-BUILT SURVEYING FOR THE FACILITY RETROFITTING OF AN OFFSHORE GAS PLANT USING LEICA SCANSTATION 2 HIGH DEFINITION SURVEYING INSTRUMENT
For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
or
+234 8093 423 853

Share This
  • Type: Project
  • Department: Quantity Surveying
  • Project ID: QUS0088
  • Access Fee: ₦5,000 ($14)
  • Pages: 143 Pages
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 314
Payment Instruction
Bank payment for Nigerians, Make a payment of ₦ 5,000 to

Bank GTBANK
gtbank
Account Name Obiaks Business Venture
Account Number 0211074565

Bitcoin: Make a payment of 0.0005 to

Bitcoin(Btc)

btc wallet
Copy to clipboard Copy text

500
Leave a comment...

    Details

    Type Project
    Department Quantity Surveying
    Project ID QUS0088
    Fee ₦5,000 ($14)
    No of Pages 143 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

    Related Works

    ABSTRACT  3D as-built models have been utilized over the years as an aid to several engineering activities and there are conventional survey methods; e.g. Total Station ray method, photogrammetric technique etc., with which the data required for these models are generated. These methods have proven not to be optimal in capturing datasets required... Continue Reading
    ABSTRCT This project aimed purposely at the production of topographic plan of Government technical college idah Kogi State. The following surveying methods are carried out to achieve this project. A reconnaissance surveying of the area to be survey was carried out before other topographical surveying method was carried out total station traversing... Continue Reading
    CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY The construction industry has recently witnessed a paradigm shift from traditional paper-based method of service delivery to electronic information exchange using Information Technology (IT), at least in the western world like UK. It is now evident that the adoption of Information Technology... Continue Reading
    ABSTRCT This project aimed purposely at the production of topographic plan of Government technical college idah Kogi State. The following surveying methods are carried out to achieve this project. A reconnaissance surveying of the area to be survey was carried out before other topographical surveying method was carried out total station traversing... Continue Reading
    . ABSTRCT This project aimed purposely at the production of topographic plan of Government technical college idah Kogi State. The following surveying methods are carried out to achieve this project. A reconnaissance surveying of the area to be survey was carried out before... Continue Reading
    CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1      Background to the study The construction industry plays an important role in a nation’s economy and its activities are also vital to the achievement of national socio-economic development goals of providing shelter, infrastructure and employment. According to Aibinu and Jagboro (2002) the construction... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Knowledge Management (KM) capabilities provide the supportive structure required to share knowledge within the context in which it is required in an organizations. Previous researches have shown that at least more than half of failed KM initiatives and the problem of ineffective KM occur as a result of firms not assessing their... Continue Reading
    CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Organizational culture defines the way employees complete tasks and interact with each other in an organization. The cultural paradigm comprises various beliefs, values, rituals and symbols that govern the operating style of the people within a company. Corporate culture binds the workforce... Continue Reading
    CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY The construction industry has recently witnessed a paradigm shift from traditional paper-based method of service delivery to electronic information exchange using Information Technology (IT), at least in the western world like UK. It is now evident that the adoption of Information Technology... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Deployment of appropriate skills and competencies is crucial and germane to the development and continuous relevance of any profession. In the built environment, the art of selecting the required skills and competencies expected of quantity surveyors and understanding the inherent dependencies between them remains a research issue. The... Continue Reading
    Call Us
    whatsappWhatsApp Us