Abstract This study was on the impact of inventory control systems on organizational performance with the case study of Century Bottling Company, Kampala. The objectives of the study were to; explore the various concepts and systems of inventory control, establish the relationship between inventory control and organizational performance, and establish challenges to inventory control in Century Bottling Company, Kampala. The review of the literature revealed various inventory control systems, the relationship between inventory control and organizational performance and a number of challenges facing inventory control. The literature was reviewed in accordance to the stated objectives. In order to achieve the objectives, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used is this study. The study used probability sampling and most specifically stratified sampling method. Data was got from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data was collected using questionnaires that were administered to a sample size of 97 staff of Century Bottling Company, Kampala. Interviews were also carried out by the researcher on 3 heads of departments and some respondents. Secondary data was gathered from; publications, internet, and unpublished documents. Data was analyzed and presented both in tables and graphical forms. The findings of the study revealed that, Century Bottling Company, Kampala had evidence of types of inventory such as raw materials, work on progress and finished goods. It was also evident that Century Bottling Company, Kampala carried out inventory control. It also asserted by the findings that inventory control and organizational performance had a relation and the earlier impacted on the latter. However, the findings reported that although Century Bottling Company, Kampala had inventory control, there was no system of monitoring and supervision. The finding also highlighted inadequate inventory in the Century Bottling Company, Kampala, lack of use of modern systems and technology. The findings finally revealed a number of challenges faced by inventory control in Century Bottling Company, Kampala such as; delay in supply of inventory, under stocking, use of obsolete techniques, use of poor technology, theft of inventory and high inventory control costs among other.