PORTABLE WATER AND SANITATION SOURCE IN UNTH ITUKU OZALLA AND ENVIRONMENT IN ENUGU STATE NIGERIA ABSTRACT The improved drinking water sources are those that by nature of their construction are protected from outside contamination particularly with fecal matter and improved sanitation those facilities that hygienically separate human excreta from human, animal and insect contact (WHO, 2002). The systematical testing of the microbial, physical and chemical quality of water at national and regional levels is considered expensive and logistically complicated. This study took into account the importance of parameters like drinking water quality, water availability, per capita water consumption per person within households, water treatment at point of use, correct hand washing practices among others. The household survey was conducted in three regular localities and three slums in Enugu Metropolis of South-East Nigeria via Trans Ekulu, New Haven, Uwani, Agu-Owa, Ugbo-Okonkwo, and Ikirike. Of the 610 questionnaires shared across localities, 578 were duly completed and returned (94.75% return rate). The questionnaire captured information on demographic and socio-economic variables, water indicators covering water sources, access, availability, per capita consumption and water treatment practices, sanitation indicators covering facility types, adequacy of facility, hand-wash practices and waste management. The health indicators tracked diarrhoeal morbidity in children under five. Correlation and regression analysis were used to determine relationship and strength of association between use of unimproved water and unimproved toilet facilities and diarrhoea prevalence in children. The quality of the water from the different sources was assessed at National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC) Water Laboratory in Agulu, Anambra State to determine whether they met the Nigerian Drinking Water Quality Standards (NDWQS) (Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON), 2007). All the water samples analysed did not meet the stipulated standards and branded unsatisfactory including pipe-borne and table water samples collected from the localities. The findings showed a moderate correlation of 0.537 for water and 0.608 for sanitation. There was a low prevalence of helminthic infestation among children with chronic neurologic disorders in Enugu. Behavioural modification and improvements in personal hygiene and waste disposal are recommended for control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in children.
CHAPTER ONE Introduction Background to the Study Access to safe water and basic sanitation is considered a basic human need and a basic human right for all people, yet this basic right remains unrealized for a large majority of people in developing countries, especially in rural communities. Global figures that describe the lack of water and sanitation services are alarming. More than 1.1 billion people do not have access to improved drinking water supplies. Lack of sanitation is even the larger problem; an estimated 2.6 billion individuals live without improved sanitation services World Health Organization and United Nations International Children Education Funds (WHO &UNICEF, 2004). Additionally, about eighty per cent of the world is covered with water and yet millions around the world suffer from water shortages, and lack access to safe water, leading to disease, death, crop failure and famine (Sander, 2007). Areas without adequate supplies of safe water and basic sanitation services carry the highest burden of diseases which disproportionately impact on children under five years of age. UNICEF (2006) stated that children weakened by frequent diarrhea episodes are more likely to be seriously affected by malnutrition and infections such as pneumonia and they can be left physically and mentally stunted for the rest of their lives .Evans (2005) maintained that approximately 88 per cent of all diarrhea infections worldwide are attributed to unsafe water supply, lack of safe hygiene practices and basic sanitation infrastructures. Similarly high incidence of vector borne disease, intestinal diseases and trachoma in developing countries is strongly correlated with unsanitary practices and the absence of nearby sources of safe water. Olusegun (2010) maintained that in Nigeria, the inadequacy of safe water and improved sanitation services is manifested in the prevalence of water and sanitation related diseases. Diarrhoea, which results from poor sanitary/hygiene habits and consumption of water of poor quality, is the second main cause of infant mortality after malaria, and the third main cause of under-five mortality. The prevalence of diarrhea is higher in the rural than in the urban areas and in the northern zones than in the south. According to United Nation (2005), the scale of the problem is immense, nearly twice as many people lack access to sanitation compared with water supply. Water is acclaimed the key to health and the general contention is that water is even more basic than all other essential things of life and living including immunization and therefore, must be given the first and highest priority. Regardless of his status and his domicile, man compulsorily requires regular and accessible supply of water which as a biological imperative forms a major component of his body cells, about 75 per cent of the liquid content of the human body (WHO & UNICEF, 2008). Water is a clear sparkling, colourless, odourless and tasteless fluid. It contains two hydrogen and one atom of oxygen hence its chemical formular is H2O. According to Mathur (2007), water is a great cleaning agent both externally and internally. In the context of this study water is referred to as clear liquid without colour, smell or teste. It has essential requirement for vital physiological and biochemical processes such as digestion, respiration, excretion and circulation. The available quantity of fresh water is also linked to human in several ways, such as water for ingestion, water for hygiene and water for food production. Even when water is available it requires adequate sourcing, collection, transportation, storage, treatment and sanitation practices. This means that water needs proper management. Balogun (1981) maintained that management is a process of tactfully controlling or bringing various elements to work together for some particular purpose. Onah and Thomas (1993) see management as a process through which group efforts or activities are directed towards the achievement of preconceived objectives. American Association of School Administrators AASA, (1995) defined management as the totality of the process through which appropriate human and material resources are made available and made effective for accomplishing the purpose of an enterprise or organization. Ogbonnaya (1997) viewed management as a process of getting things accomplished or done through the assistance of other people. When management relates to water, it is called water management. Therefore, water management is the process of tactfully controlling or bringing various elements such as sourcing, storage, treatment and sanitation practices to work together for some health purpose. In this context Water management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing, and making the optimum use of water sources. Water sources means locations or places where fresh water flow abundantly in the form of river, lake, pond or stream. In this study water sources refers to locations or origin where water that are useful or potentially useful to man comes from. According to WHO (2000) improved drinking water sources should be constructed and design to protect the water source from outside contamination, in particular from fecal matter. Sources that meet the definition of improved drinking water include: a household connection pipe, public pipe borne water, borehole, protected dug well, protected spring or rainwater collection. WHO (2004) asserted that drinking water comes from different sources depending on where people live. Three sources that are used to collect drinking water are rain water, surface water and ground water. Park (2009) opined that water sources must conform to two criteria. The quantity must be sufficient to meet present and future requirement and the quality of water must be acceptable. Wallace (2009) posited that most suitable water source to be developed for use by any community depends on the quantity and quality of the source under consideration for development. The selection of the most appropriate water source for human use in a specific region may result from a wide variety of options available which include ground water, surface water and rain water. Rain water is a product of a natural process of distillation. Dhaar and Robbani (2008) asserted that rain water is the prime source of all the water, a part of the rain water sinks into the ground to form ground water, part of it evaporates into the atmosphere and some runs off to form streams and rivers, which flow ultimately into the sea. Rain water is the purest in nature. Surface water normally originately from precipitation and is widely distributed in nature. According to Dhaar and Robbani (2008) surface water is the commonest source of water for most people in the developing countries. Oceans are the largest storehouse of surface water in the world. In the land area, surface water exist either in the moving state as in rivers and streams or in stationary condition as in tanks, ponds and impounded reservoirs. Ground water is universally distributed both as a natural outpouring of an aquifer in the form of spring and as wells excavated in earth, to reach an aquifer. According to Dhaar and Robbani (2008) ground water contains excess of inorganic matter and little or no organic impurities. It is free from suspended matter and comparatively with surface water, it is less aerated and less agreeable to taste. Ground water drawn from adequately protected deep wells is naturally free from pathogens when it is properly collected. Water collection means taking water from a natural source and feeding into a distribution system. The source can be an underground reservoir, a body of standing water, a body of flowing water or any natural substance from which water can be extracted. In this study water collection is the harvesting of water from a natural body or from rain and directing it to a desired place. Clasen and Roberts (2006) observed that contamination of water can occur during and after collection often because of poorly designed open containers and improper hygiene and handling during transportation. Water transportation means movement of water over large distance to another place. In this study water transportation is the process of moving water from one location to another. The benefits of protected sources on water quality and health are limited unless safe transportation and storage can be assured. Water storage means keeping water in a special place while it is not being used. In the context of this study water storage means keeping water away from sources of contamination and using a clean and covered container to hold it. Wikipedia (2000) asserted that water storage container may be a reservoir, a water bottle, jerry can, clay pot, rubber pot, basin, bucket with lid drum and tank. The container should prevent hand, cups and dippers from touching the water so that the water does not get recontaminated. Storage containers should be well protected from outside contamination and use for no other purpose other than the storage of clean water. In a study conducted by Okoga (2007) found that the higher a woman’s level of education, the more likely she is to be conscious of her health and that of her family. She is also more likely to take positive actions that are capable of promoting good health. She can have education on safe storage of water and treatment of unsafe water for domestic use. Conversely, the illiterate women may lack the basic education on efficient use and pollution prevention, even as they may have learned strategies to conserve safe water. Wikipedia (2000) further asserted that water should only be stored in material that is created specifically for long term storage of liquids intended for consumption. It is important that hygienic containers should be used to store water as some containers can leak, crack, degrade or otherwise cause problems to the stored water. Sometime it is difficult to find or buy a good storage container, but the most important things are to make sure that it is covered and the water stored undergoes adequate treatment so that it can be safe for drinking. Faust and Aly (1998) viewed water treatment as a physical and chemical processes for making water suitable for human consumption and other purposes. Safe Drinking Water (2000) defined water treatment as the process for enhancing the quality of water so that it meets the water quality criteria for its fitness for the intended use. They further asserted that water treatment originally focused on improving the qualities of drinking water. According to WHO (2000) water purification is the removal of contaminants from raw water to produce safe water that is pure enough for human consumption. Substances that are removed during the process of water treatment include bacteria’s, algae, viruses, fungi, minerals and man-made chemistry pollutants. Osmonics (2004) opined that water treatment is any procedure or method used to alter the chemistry composition or natural “behavior” of water. In the context of this study water treatment is a process of removing harmful substances and odour from a raw water source. Water available in nature from surface or underground sources is described as raw water. It requires treatment before it can be supplied for human consumption. The nature of treatment is determined by the quality of raw water and the impurities present in it, ground water may need only partial treatment. Surface water especially that obtained from a river may require complete treatment before it can be released for supply.Treatment of water comprises methods of water treatment which include: natural and artificial methods. Controlling pollution by dilution is a natural way in rivers and stream water. Amount of sewage or polluting matter, which enters river or stream, gets diluted so much that it loses its bad effect on human health. Dilution is an important means of purification. Sedimentation is a physical treatment process used to reduce the turbidity of water. Boiling is the best method to destroy all organisms and it makes water sterile but this method is not always practical in large scale purification. Adding alum or aluminum sulphate is the most common used coagulant. They are cheap, readily available and non-corrosive. Chemical disinfection is aimed at killing pathogenic organisms in the water; the most common form of chemical disinfection is chlorination. Filtration is quite an important stage in water purification or treatment because 98-99 per cent of the bacterial are removed by filtration apart from other impurities. Sunder (2010) asserted that the objective of filtration is to make water safe by removing pathogenic organism. Safe water is one that is free from pathogenic microorganisms, toxic substances and excessive amount of minerals which could produce undesirable physiological effects. Dhaar and Robbani (2008) stated that drinking water must be safe for the consumers as well as acceptable to them. Water which fails to meet the safety and acceptability criteria is regarded as unsafe water. Unsafe water is one which contains harmful microorganism and substances, possesses colour, odour or taste due to dissolved minerals. All communities have some access to water, but the safety of the water they consume is less often assured. In areas where there may be unsafe water, women play the major role of domestic water management. In these areas women are typically responsible for collecting, storing, purification, sanitation and hygiene practices. Bathia and Fakemark (2006) however, pointed that the easier and less time consuming in fetching water the more likely the aged women adopt in hauling or treating water and hygiene practices. Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes. Lucas and Giles (2007) pointed that hazard can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. The key to man’s health lies largely in his environment. Safe sanitation promotes health, improves the quality of the environment and thus, the quality of life in a community. Grey (2002) viewed sanitation as the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste materials, particularly human excreta. He further maintained that sanitation is an important public health measure, which is essential for the prevention of disease. International Water and Sanitation (2004) posited that sanitation refers to the facilities and hygienic principles and practices related to the safe collection, reuse and or disposal of human excreta and domestic waste water. Victor and Ernest (2007) opined that sanitation refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and waste disposal. The term sanitation can be applied to a specific aspect, concept, location or strategy such as basic sanitation. Basic means necessary and important to all people e.g. basic human rights. Therefore, basic sanitation refers to the management of human faeces at the household level. This terminology is the indicator used to describe the target of the Millennium Development Goal on Sanitation. The United Nations Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for sanitation is to halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. The United Nations Millennium Project (2008) defined basic sanitation as access to and use of excreta and waste water facilities and services that provide privacy and dignity while at the same time ensuring a clean and healthful living environment both at home and in the immediate neighbourhood of users. Access to sanitation means the availability of a hygienic facility to human excreta disposal within a convenient distance from the user’s dwelling i.e not too far away to discourage its use. The technology selected should give the user the highest service level that is willing and able to pay and at the same time has capacity to maintain (UNICEF, 1999). The Millennium Project Task Force (2004) maintain that basic sanitation is the lowest-cost option for securing sustainable access to safety hygienic and convenient facilities and services for excreta and sullage disposal that provide privacy and dignity while ensuring a clean and healthful living environment both at home and in the neighbourhood of users. National Sanitation Task Team (2002) asserted that sanitation means collecting and disposing in a hygienic manner, of waste, including human excreta, household waste, water and rubbish, if this is not done, neighbourhood become dirty and people get sick. In the context of this study basic sanitation refers to the principles and practices relating to the collection, removal or disposal of human excreta, household waste water and refuse as they impact upon people and the environment. WHO (2011) defined basic sanitation as group of methods to collect human excreta and urine as well as community waste waters in a hygienic, way, where human and community health is not altered. Basic sanitation addresses the issue of solid waste disposal, sewage disposal and water sanitation. Waste as the term implies is any solid, liquid or gaseous substances or materials which being a scap or being super flows, refuse or eject is disposed of or required to be disposed as unwanted. The United Kingdoms Environmental Protection Act (1990) defined waste as any substance which constitutes a scap material or an affluent or other unwanted surplus substance arising from the application of any process and substance or article, which requires to be disposed of as being broken, worn-out, contaminated or otherwise spoiled. Dawodu (2009) maintained that waste could be any material which has been used and is no longer wanted for example, because the valuable or useful part of its has been taken out. Nnamani (2000) opined that solid waste refers to all materials that the processor or owner no longer considers of sufficient value to retain. Solid waste in this context refers to leaves, bottles, cans, maize husk and so on. Solid waste disposal therefore, refers to how individuals, societies or organization stow away solid waste. There should be an efficient system for its periodic collection, removal and final disposal without risk to health. Kiely (1998) defined solid waste as all the waste collected by private or public authorities from domestic, commercial and other industrial sources which constitute danger to the health of man and animals in the environment. Lucas and Giles (2007) pointed that waste that can cause problems are animal and human faeces, solid waste, domestic waste water (sewage, urine, sullage, greywater) industrial waste and agricultural. Sewage is a raw water or waste water or human or animal excreta plus water. Hornby (2006) defined sewage as the mixture of waste from the human body and used water, that is carried away from houses and factories through pipes. According to Park (2009) sewage is waste from a community containing solid and liquid excreta, derived from houses, street and ward washing, factories and industries. Joseph (2006) opined that sewage is liquid refuse or waste matter usually carried off by sewers. In rural areas, the majorities of them go to the fields for defecation and thereby pollute the environment with human excreta. Proper disposal of human excreta is a fundamental environmental health service to improve the state and community health. The solution to the problem is through hygienic disposal of human excreta which is the corner-stone of all public health services. Sewage disposal therefore, is the act of getting rid of used water and waste substances, that are carried away from houses and factories through special pipes. According to Akintola (2007) disposed methods include: off-site disposal, this involves the immediate removal of sewage through the net work of sewage to the sewage treatment plant. This method of sewage disposal is considered to be the safest because sewage is removed from the house and its surrounding immediately. If properly managed, the sewage system is convenient and comparatively hygienic. On-site disposal, this involves a process whereby sewage is disposed into a latrine or septic tank within the residential plot until the pit is full and arrangement is made to evacuate its content by a vacuum tanker. This method includes the use of septic tank pour-flush latrines, ventilated improved pit latrine, simple pit latrine and composting latrines. Improving sanitation practices among people will help improve well being of the population directly including inhabitants of Ituku Ozalla where the present study is located. It has been shown, for instance, that adequate provision, access to and effective practice of sanitary measures can relieve about the same total burden of disease (measured in daily adjusted life years) as do improvement in public health care. Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council WSSCC, (1998) asserted that women’s failure to maintain adequate sanitation practices put their households at the risk of contracting diseases. Water borne diseases can be prevented through paying meticulous attention to good sanitation practices. The council further stated that, the most effective way of reducing the burden of disease is through desirable sanitation practices and with the maintenance of good personal hygiene. When sanitation and hygienic practices are promoted, it goes a long way to prevent disease. Simpson and Weiner (1991) defined practice as a habitual action–custom. Webster (1980) viewed practice as something done habitually or customarily. Robinson and Davidson (1998) described practice as a habitual activity, procedure or custom. Funks and Wagnals (2003) defined practice as any customary action or proceeding regarded as individual’s habit. Practice in this context is conceived as particular way of doing something regularly. There are some undesirable practices which include fetching water from unprotected sources, poor collection and storage, non use of treatment measures, and unhygienic disposal of solid and sewage waste. There are some factors that may affect water management and basic sanitation practices UNTH Ituku Ozalla. They are age, level of education, lack of fund. In most societies, women have the primary responsibility for management of water supply, sanitation and health at the household level. UNICEF (2006) stated that the burden of fetching water from distant sources and travelling to sanitation facilities outside the home takes time away from productive activities, child-care, education or leisure. The report further stated that in the rural Sub-Saharan Africa, women spend an average of just under half an hour for each trip to a water source. Since in most cases several trips are made per day, this represents a significant amount of time lost. The time spent in search of water may force some to resort to any source that is available. Roberts and Shif (2001) perceived that in rural areas women choose to continue the use of traditional unwholesome water sources. The decision to use a particular water source is influenced by preferences, knowledge and perceptions about water quality. Goni (2003) observed that when water is scarce, supplies is irregular and water quality is poor, the elderly women cannot withstand the stress of walking long distances to fetch water, spending hours per day burdened under heavy containers and suffering acute physical problems, especially in drought prone areas. Consequently the elderly women are disproportionately and among the poor they tend to be most adversely hit by the lack of water and sanitation services. This will lead to continued use of unsafe water as well as limited access to existing water sources. Furthermore, a lack of adequate sanitation will endanger their health as there will be no proper defecation and urinary facilities. (DFID, 1998). Mosleh and Sudhir (2005) stated that an increasing amount of literature suggests thathealth problems result from the lack of sanitation facilities. 1.2 Statement of the Problem Access to basic services like water supply and sanitation is a moral and ethical imperative rooted in the cultural and religious tradition of societies around the world. The United Nations had affirmed the right to water in 2002, recognizing that the right to water is indispensable for leading a life in human dignity and a prerequisite for the realization of other human rights. It states that the human right to water entitles everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic use. The statement echoes the importance of adequate water supply and sanitation for the health, economic, social development and for an ecological balance of the world. Availability of wholesome drinking water for domestic consumption and fulfillment of industrial purposes enhances maintenance and promotion of personal and community health. However, potable water can only be conveyed to the people through adequate safe water supply facilities such as boreholes with hand pumps, public standpipes and hand dug wells. Inadequacy and non-utilization of water supply facilities can hinder access to wholesome drinking water, which eventually may lead to consumption of contaminated water with attendant consequences. 1.3 Objectives of the Study The purpose of the study is to find out water management and basic sanitation practices in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study seeks to find out: 1. Sources of portable water used in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state. 2. Water collection practices in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state. 3. Water storage practices in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state, 4. Water treatment practices prior to drinking in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state. 5. Solid waste disposal practices in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state. 6. Sewage disposal practices in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state, 7. Basic sanitation practices in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state. 1.4 Research Questions The following research questions have been posed to guide the present study: 1. What are the sources of water used in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state. 2. What are the water collection practices in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state. 3. What are the water storage practices in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state. 4. What are the water treatment practices prior to drinking in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state. 5. What are the solid waste disposal practices in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state. 6. What are the sewage disposal practices in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state. 7. What are basic sanitation practices in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state. 1.5 Hypotheses The following null hypotheses guides the study, and each was tested at .05 level of significance: HO. Water management practices adopted in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state are not significantly dependent on level of education. H1. Water management practices adopted in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state are significantly dependent on level of education HO. Basic sanitation practices adopted in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state are not significantly dependent on level of education. H1. Basic sanitation practices adopted in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state are not significantly dependent on level of education. 1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study The scope of the study can be outlined as follow: i. The study covered portable water and sanitation source in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state Nigeria.
i. The study is focusing on UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environments in Enugu state Enugu State of Nigeria. iii. The study presents a solution to the problem, water management and sanitation in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environments in Enugu state.
1.7 Significance of the Study The findings regarding portable water sources in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state will bebeneficial to health educators and Ministry of Water Resources. Health educators will organize seminar for the rural women on good sources of water which they can use for good health and that of their families. Ministry of Water Resources will find the information useful in that, they will dig public boreholes for the rural residents to boost their water supply. The findings on water collection practices will be of benefit to the women because they will improve on their water collection i.e. from improved water sources and proper handling of water during collection process, so that the water does not get contaminated. The findings on water storage practices will be of benefit to women because they will improve on their water storage practices. They will seek means of getting standard containers for storing water. Furthermore, findings on water treatment or purification practices will be beneficial to the health educators and people. Health educators will sensitize the people on sound water purification methods and encourage them to keep it up for their betterment. The findings on solid waste disposal practices in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state will be beneficial to Waste Management Authorities and the UNTH residents. Moreover, the findings on sewage disposal practices in UNTH Ituku Ozalla and environment in Enugu state will be beneficial to Environmental Health Officers. They will check the sanitary facilities of each household and advice on the improved sanitary facilities in the hospital that will separate the human contact with excreta.
PORTABLE WATER AND SANITATION SOURCE IN UNTH ITUKU OZALLA AND ENVIRONMENT IN ENUGU STATE NIGERIA
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