ABSTRACT The National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) was initiated and implemented under Olusegun Obasanjo administration to strengthen the entire sectors of the Nigerian economy. This study therefore, critically evaluates the impact of the NEEDS on sustainable human development in Nigeria between 2003 and 2014. Using the Marxist instrumentalist theory as a theoretical framework of analysis and adopting the secondary source of data collection which includes books, scholarly journals, pamphlets, monographs, newspapers, magazine and government documents .The one-shot ex-post facto design and qualitative-descriptive of documented evidence was used as a method of data analysis. The study affirmed that the programme has contributed to the deteriorating condition of Nigerian economy as unemployment and poverty abound despite foreign assistance. The study recommends among others, sustained and continuous government intervention in the economy to manage and distribute resources more efficiently among the citizens.