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INTERNATIONAL DONOR AGENCIES AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (UNDP)POVERTY REDUCTION ACTIVITIES IN ENUGU STATE.

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  • Chapters:6
  • Pages:100
  • Methodology:Descriptive
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(Political Science Project Topics & Materials)

INTERNATIONAL DONOR AGENCIES AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (UNDP)POVERTY REDUCTION ACTIVITIES IN ENUGU STATE.
PREFACE

Poverty, conflicts, disease, corruption, political instability, poor  policy  implementation,  etc,  are  some  of  the  numerous factors  that  constitute  a  serious  challenge  to  the  economic development in the developing countries.   In Nigeria, a lot of measures   have   been   put   in   place   to   ensure   economic development.   One of such outstanding measures is poverty reduction.   Poverty reduction  efforts  in Nigeria are  aimed at improving the standard of living of the Nigerian people.   As a result,  successive  governments  in  Nigeria  have  initiated  and adopted various programmes towards poverty reduction, they include the Operation Feed the Nation (OFN), Green Revolution (GR),  Directorate  of  Food,  Roads  and  Rural  Infrastructures (DFRRI), Family Support Programme (FSP), Family Economic Advancement    Programme    (FEAP),    Poverty    Alleviation
Programme   (PAP),   Agricultural   Development   Programme (ADP),  National  Directorate  of  Employment  (NDE),  National Agricultural  Land  Development  Authority  (NALDA),   among others.
More  so,  foreign  assistance  is  also  sought  in  seeking solutions to the problem of poverty in Nigeria.   In this respect, International Donor Agencies are often allowed to play great role.   United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is one such agencies that operate in Enugu State.   Expectations are that  such  donor  agencies  would  impact  positively  in  such developmental activities.
The problem of the developing countries is that their hope and  reliance  on  foreign  assistance,  most  often,  helps  in weakening or slowing down development in such developing countries. In respect of this, the international donor agencies such as the United Nations Development  Programme (UNDP), Department for International Development (DFID),United States Agency for International Development (USAID) etc., upon their symbolic  development  activities,  fall  short  of  development  realities. This is as a result of their lack of touch with the target population, the poor.
So,  to  theoretically  explain  this  research  report,  the Dependency theory is hereby applied. The central message of the theory is that developing countries should ensure real and actual  development  through  home-grown  efforts,  rather  than depending on foreign assistance which further deepens them into underdevelopment.
The    research    methodology    applied    here    include observation and secondary source of data. Therefore, visits to project sites of the UNDP in Enugu state was personally done by the  researcher  of this  research  report.  More  so,  relevant literatures were consulted.
At the end of the research, the followings were made:
1. Previous  efforts  by past  Nigerian  governments  towards poverty reduction could not help reduce poverty in Nigeria
 2. The communities that benefited from the UNDP projects in Enugu state were relatively few.
3. The so-called UNDP projects in Enugu state were mainly executed and controlled by the Enugu state government rather than being directly done by the UNDP.
4. The  UNDP  projects  are  small-scale  in  nature,  and  so, could not guarantee sustainable livelihood.
5. The UNDP projects easily fall into depreciation as they lack proper maintenance.
6. The micro credit loans given to few individuals were so infinitesimal that it could not bring about positive change in the lives of the beneficiaries.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
 1.0 Statement of the Problem    -
 1.1 Objective of the study    -
 1.2 Significance of the study   
 1.3 Literature review   
 1.4 Theoretical Framework   
 1.5 Hypothesis 
 1.6 Method of data collection   
 1.7 Method of data analysis  
 References
  CHAPTER TWO: THE HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF UNDP ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
 2.0 Historical overview  
 2.1 UNDP Operational Framework (1960-1999)   
 2.2 UNDP Operational Framework (2000-2007)   
 References
 CHAPTER    THREE:    UNDP    POVERTY    REDUCTION ACTIVITIES IN ENUGU STATE
3.0 The UNDP Goal in Enugu state
 3.1 The Integrated Community Development Project 
 3.2 Capacity Building   
 3.3 Micro credit Administration   
 3.4.0 Benchmark of UNDP poverty reduction in Enugu state  
 3.4.1 Achievement of the UNDP in Enugu state   
 3.4.2 Shortcomings or failures of UNDP in Enugu state  
 References
CHAPTER FOUR: PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE UNDP AND ENUGU STATE GOVERNMENT
 4.0 Overview  
 4.1 Achievements of UNDP in Enugu state   
 4.2 Shortcomings or failures of UNDP in Enugu state 
 References
CHAPTER FIVE: STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE UNDP PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA
 5.0 Background    -  
 5.1 Recommendation  -
 CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, AND CONCLUSION
 6.0 Summary    -
 6.1 Conclusion   -
Bibliography - 
  CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
This   research   report   is   given   scientific   structure,   as indicated in this chapter. As a result, this chapter is made up of the statement of the problem, the objective of the study, the significance of the study, the literature review, the theoretical framework, the hypothesis, the method of data collection, and the method of data analysis.
1.0 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This  research  report  is  driven  by  the  continued  high poverty  rate  in  Enugu  state  of  Nigeria,  irrespective  of  the increasing effort towards poverty reduction. In this respect, the UNDP engaged in various poverty reduction activities in Enugu state, the result of which could not bring about considerable positive  change,  enough  to  effectively  reduce  the  impact  of poverty on the people.
In addition to the UNDP, other strategies are put in place by various Nigerian governments towards poverty reduction and improved livelihood. Some of these strategies are in the nature of such programmes like the green revolution, the directorate of food, roads, and rural infrastructures,  the operation feed the nation, the family support programme, the poverty alleviation programme, etc.
2003 – 2007 serves as the scope of this research study.

The Green Revolution (GR)

On assumption of office in 1979, Alhaji Shehu Shagari gave  priority  attention  to  agriculture  through  the  then  newly articulated Green Revolution programme.  With this programme, Alhaji Shehu Shagari approved the purchase and distribution of certain  inputs  and  equipment  to  farmers.    There  and  then,
tractors, fishing trawlers, livestock, feeds, improved seeds, etc were  purchased  and  distributed.    A  massive  campaign  was
launched  throughout  the  country  to  boost  the  production  of seeds to be supported by the provision of inputs and organized
marketing.
The Directorate of Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI) In  1986,  General  Ibrahim  Babangida  established  the Directorate of Food, Roads and rural Infrastructure to provoke rural development.   The aim  of this  scheme  was to provide feeder roads, electricity and potable water and toilet facilities for the rural dwellers.
“The project gulped a whopping sum of 1.9 billion Naira (about  80  billion  Naira  toady’s  value),  without  the  target audience  benefiting  from  them”  (Maduagwu,  2000,  p  3).    In addition, the Babangida government set up the Peoples Bank,the    Community    bank,    and    the    National    Economic
Reconstruction   Fund   as   financial   institutions   to   offer   the Nigerian people access to credit facilities. As well, the Better Life for Rural Women was set by the same government to cater for the Nigerian poor especially the rural women.   The Better
 Life for Rural Women ended up being hijacked by the rich who
were allies to the wife of the president.
The Operation Feed the Nation (OFN)
Launched  on  22  May, 1976, the  OFN was  one  of  the economic    measures    adopted    by    the    General    Murtala Mohammed/Olusegun Obasanjo regime.  The launching of the Operation Feed the Nation was aimed at increasing agricultural production in order to make food more abundant for the people.
The Operation Feed the Nation was designed to increase food  production,  arrest  the  drift  from  rural  to  urban  centres, provide employment, generate surplus food for export, etc.  To ensure  the  workability  of  this  programme,  the  government provided   agricultural   inputs,   such   as   improved   seedlings, fertilizers, pesticides, marketing and storage arrangements, etc. In  addition,  university  students  were  mobilized,  trained  and deployed  in  their  Local  Governments  to  teach  the  farmers modern techniques and methods of farming.   The Operation Feed the Nation was intended to enable Nigerians appreciate the dignity of labour.
However, the Operation Feed the Nation could not fulfill its purposed  goals.  The  scheme  was  destroyed  by  corruption among  the  government  officials  handling  the  projects,  poor funding, and insincerity.  At the end, the scheme could not live up to expectation.
The Family Support Programme (FSP)
In 1993, General Sani Abacha and his wife set up the Family    Support    Programme    and    the    family    Economic
Advancement  Programme  (FEAP).    The  two  schemes  were aimed at catering for the poor in Nigeria.
The Family Support Programme alone gulped over ten billion    naira    while    the    Family   Economic    Advancement
Programme consumed equally a similar amount. At the end, not much impact was made in the lives of the poor Nigerians.
 The Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP) On   assumption   of   office   in   1999,   Chief   Olusegun Obasanjo    introduced    the    National    Poverty    Alleviation
Programme, which later metamorphosed into National Poverty
 
Eradication  Programme.    According  to  the  United  Nations
 Systems  in  Nigeria,  2001,  p.  70,   the  poverty  Alleviation Programme was aimed at providing immediate employment to an estimated two hundred thousand job seekers over a twelve month period.
The Poverty Alleviation Programme, unfortunately, ended up  being  hijacked  by  the  implementing  officers  and  political party loyalists.
Meanwhile, other related poverty Alleviation schemes or programmes include the River Basin and Rural Development Authorities   (RBRDA),   National   Directorate   of   Employment (NDE),   Nomadic   Education   Programme   (NEP),   National Agricultural Land Development Authority (NALDA), Oil Mineral
producing Areas Development Commission (OMPADEC), now transformed   into   Niger   Delta   Development   Commission (NDDC),   Nigeria   Agricultural   Co-operative   Bank   (NACB), Peoples Bank of Nigeria, National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS), Nigeria Industrial Development bank (NIDB), etc.
The  above  programmes  and  schemes  are  all  directed towards  economic  improvement  through  poverty  reduction. Though the programmes and schemes may sound purposeful, their implementation appears a different thing altogether. The problem may arise from the implementation officials who tend to be   corrupt,   or   from   the   government   that   initiated   such programme and later reneged on the goal of the programme through   insincerity   or   failure   to    effectively   fund   such
programmes.  This, according to Mohamed (Crystal Magazine, March,   2000,   p.   19)   serves   as   the   reason   behind   the modification or the scrapping of such schemes, seeing that the schemes fail in addressing the vexed poverty question.
Side by side with some of the above schemes are some international donor agencies which as well, work in the spirit of reducing poverty in Nigeria.  Some of the agencies include the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the  Department  for  International  Development  (DFID),  the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, etc.
Encouraged by the desire to stem the tide of poverty, the Enugu state government partnered with the UNDP.  The overall goal is to propel the state along the path of poverty alleviation through the promotion of full and productive employment and sustainable human development.
The   activities   of   the   United   Nations   Development Programme  in  Enugu  state  are  grouped  into  two  packages, namely;
 i)    the integrated Community Development project,
 ii)the financial Disbursement and Resource Mobilization.
According to the UNDP Transition Report, 2004 (pp 10),
 80% of the total development fund earmarked for Enugu state was reallocated to Integrated Community Development Project, while 20% was for Capacity Building.
Under  the  Integrated  Community  Development  project, sixteen   communities   were   selected   by   the   Enugu   state government to receive assistance for the implementation of at least four projects as contained in the signed Memorandum of Understanding  (MOU).    The  benefiting  communities  include
Ugwogo Nike, Agbani, Mbu, Edem, Aguobu owa, Iheakpu Awka, Obinagu Uwani, Obunoffia, Mpu, Eke, Umuida, Oduma, Ameze, Aji, Akpawfu and Abor.
The above communities were earmarked to benefit in the UNDP assisted projects which are in the areas of water supply healthcare,  sewing,  hair  dressing  equipment,  livestock,  Garri processing, skill acquisition, road maintenance, etc.
 In  the  area  of  financial  Disbursement  and  resource mobilization, the Micro-Finance Institution (MFI) disbursed the sum of 5.2 million Naira on behalf of Enugu state government to eight-two   groups   for   various   income-generating   ventures (Transition Report, 2004. pp. 6). This was aimed at encouraging capital formation for micro entrepreneurial development as well as to expand economic activities in rural communities.
However,  it  was  observed  that  necessary maintenance attention is not given to such projects that were carried out to reduce   poverty  in   Enugu   state.    The   so-called   financial disbursement  was  not  sufficient  and  effective  to  bring  about sustainable  change  in  the  life  of  the  people  so  affected. Moreover, the involvement of the Enugu state government in the activities associated with the poverty reduction scheme calls for questions  about  the  objectivity  and  sincerity  of  the  people carrying out the scheme.
 Following the above shortcomings in respect of the UNDP and  poverty reduction  in  Enugu  state,  this  research  work  is geared  towards  filling  the  gap  by  finding  answers  to  the following research questions:
1) Is there considerable reduction in poverty level in Enugu state within 2003 and 2007?
2) Has the UNDP poverty reduction efforts improved the living standard of the people of Enugu state?
1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The  issue  of  development  stands  one  of  the  national priorities  of  every  government.    Nonetheless,  governments channel both domestic and foreign approaches in pursuance of national development.
This research work is aimed at assessing the successes and failures in respect of efforts employed in ensuring national development  in  Nigeria  through  poverty  reduction  schemes.
 Such investigative assessment would learn on finding answers to the above research questions.
So, the objective of this research work includes:
1)  To  find  out  the  extent  to  which  the  UNDP  has  reduced poverty in Enugu state.
2) To examine the nature of partnership between the UNDP and Enugu state government.
3) To examine the specific projects accomplished by the UNDP in Enugu state, in relation to such projects’ influence on the living standard of the people.
4)  To  provide  more  effective  strategies  to  enhance  UNDP performance in Nigeria.
1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this research work is based on the
consideration that its findings would help re-direct the Nigerian economic policy.  Thus, the new economic policy would favour a shift   from   dependence   on   foreign   donor   agencies   to   a domestically-sewn  economic  policy  which  would  serve  as  a gateway to a more realistic development.
Meanwhile, this research work would offer solutions to the problem of poverty and development in Nigeria.   It would, as well, improve on the already existing knowledge about the role of foreign assistance to the developing countries of the world.

1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW
Undoubtedly, the nature of this study requires that some related  literatures  be  looked  at.  These  literatures  would  be considered, assessed and improved upon where necessary.
Regarding poverty, its problems and solutions, Nigerian governments have been putting up efforts towards alleviating poverty.
 According to Anthony Maduagwu (Maduagwu, 2000 pp.
1), the reasons why the past poverty alleviation attempts failed include:
1. the politics of personal rule; which is a destructive political system in which the rivalries and struggles of powerful and willful men, rather than impersonal institutions, ideologies, public policies, class interests, are fundamental in shaping political life.
2.  the  top  –  down  big  man  approach;  in  which  poverty alleviation programmes are done in a master – servant kind of relationship in which government claims to know and understand what being poor means, who the poor is, and what is to be poor. He therefore argues that only the poor understands poverty and so, it is only the poor that know how their poverty could be alleviated.
He offered some solution which could be applied in tackling   poverty.   His   suggestions    include   addressing
 environmental  problems,  upward  review  of  salaries  and wages, addressing the problems of ethnic – based crises, curbing corruption, etc.
Adebayo.   O.   Lawal,   in   a   book   edited   by  Oyin   Ogunba (Ogunba2000, pp 207 - 208), cited that despite several millions of Naira voted for various poverty alleviation programmes in Nigeria by Nigeria government, none succeeded in registering any tangible positive impact on the poor masses in both the urban and rural area. Lawal blamed the failure on the various personnel in charge of the schemes. He maintained that such officials colluded with the powers that be in misappropriating the fund   that   were   meant   for   financing   the   various   poverty alleviation projects.
Comparatively,  Lawal  maintained  that  poverty  in  developed countries  is  a  minor  problem  because  of  such  countries productive    economy,    labour    absorptive    capacity,    good governance, efficient tax system, committed leadership, welfare system, and sensitiveness of government to the plight of the populace.  In such countries, the national output that is annually generated is sufficient to afford a more equitable distribution of income to the effect that each person will be above poverty line so long as the rate of population growth is properly controlled. His solution to poverty in Nigeria include:  Nigerian government must declare total war on poverty and borrow foreign technique as  mentioned  above.    This  would  ensure  consistent  and pragmatic implementation of anti poverty programmes.

Phil-Eze, in his own view (Phil-Eze 2000), maintained that considerable efforts have been made by successive Nigerian governments towards poverty reduction.  These efforts include international  agencies  all  being  indicative  of  the  Nigerian government awareness of the poverty level and suffering of the Nigerians.
Phil-Eze  condemns  a  top-bottom  approach  to  poverty

reduction;  rather,  he  suggests  a  bottom-top  approach.    This approach, he sees as more realistic, arguing that reaching the hearts of the people established control and co-operation of the people.
His main focus is the rural/conflict areas (conflict area here being the area of the country where the carrying capacity of the land falls short of its population needs, in terms of food and national  resources).  To  him,  for  the  attainment  of  poverty alleviation in our rural/conflict areas, the poor must be driven to it  by  hope  supported  by  transparent  honesty,  through  their traditional  leaders  and  community  leaders,  not  people  from outside,   or   government.   This   idea   therefore   calls   for participatory  approach  that  is  bottom-up  oriented.    In  this participatory  approach  to  poverty  alleviation,  the  traditional leaders  and  leaders  of  autonomous  communities  have  a complementary  role  to  play  for  the  success  of  the  poverty alleviation scheme.  He suggested the following strategies:
 
i.The traditional and community leaders should identify the  needs  of  their  people  before  any programme  is embarked upon.
 
ii.The traditional and community leaders should be the ones to select the beneficiaries of such programmes.
 
iii.The proposed beneficiaries should be assisted through the provision of access to credits from financial houses,
 
iv.The traditional and community leaders should accord women equal participatory opportunities.
 
v. The traditional and community leaders should source and  manage  community-based  information,  including those related to health etc.
More so, the problem of poverty is a serious matter to any country  and  governments.    Therefore  its  solutions  could  be sought from both within and outside the country in question.  So, poverty could also be tackled through foreign aids.   The aids could come in form of loans, grants, international governmental and   non-governmental   donor   agencies.    Some   of   the international  donor  agencies  that  are  operating  in  Nigeria include the Department for International Development (DFID), the   United   States   Agency   for   International   Development, (USAID), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), etc.
By  assessment,   one   could   consider  the   operational effectiveness  of  the  so-called  donor  agencies  to  the  actual development within the host countries.
According  to  Daniel  Offiong  (Offiong,  pp.  143  –  149), contemporary  imperialism  or  neo-colonialism  seeks  to  avoid direct political control or military intervention.  Western interests are   then   preserved   through   the   reinforcement   of   the infrastructure  of  dependence.    These  infrastructures  include
African institutions and social classes which are geared toward foreign interests.  These western interests are, there and then, accomplished in large measure through aid agencies.

Thus, in the view of Daniel Offiong, foreign aid (through the   international   donor   agencies)   tends   to   be   counter- productive.    This  is  as  a  result  of  the  fact  that  such  donor
agencies  indirectly  serve  and  represent  the  interest  of  the developed  countries  rather  than  serving  the  interest  of  the developing countries.  This is reflected in the former president of the United States, John Kennedy’s definition of foreign Aid as “a method by which the United States maintained a position of influence and control around the world, and sustains a good many countries which would definitely collapse or pass into the communist Bloc” (Offiong, pp. 143-4).  This imperialist statement by John Kennedy demonstrates the ontological reason behind the setting up of some donor agencies, especially as it concerns the cold  war period.   Judging from  this statement therefore, foreign aids serve as the instrument of campaign for alliances, rather than promoting development in the recipient countries. Another  significance  of  such  foreign  aids  is  that  developing countries  are  looked  upon  by  the  developed  counties  as marketable commodities which could be afforded by the use of aids.  Furthermore, aids are seen as coming from the corridors of political projections rather than economic projections.  Offiong therefore underscores many areas of difference and discontent between  the  developed  countries  (donor  countries)  and  the developing  counties  (recipient  countries).    In  a  summarized
form, the differences and discontents include:
i)   The so-called foreign aids to the developing counties are always infinitesimal relative to need.
ii)  The insufficient aid is usually secured after a prolonged and frustrating bargaining.
iii) Tying the aid to stringent and unbalanced trade relation between the donor countries and the recipient countries makes such aid more of imposed than offered.
 iv) The donor countries give foreign aids mostly in order to project their image rather than to actually promote real development in the recipient countries.
v)  The foreign aids, most often, back-fires. This implies that instead  of  generating  more  income  for  the  recipient countries or improving the lives of people, such foreign aids  worsen  the  economies  of  the  recipient  countries, thereby forcing them into more foreign debts.
In his book, the West and the Rest of Us, Chinweizu is of the view that, not that aids are given, but to what practical benefit they are to the recipient countries. This underscores the fact that aids are not given in good spirit by the donor countries, given the fact that the end product of such aids amounts to putting the recipient country in relatively worse economic condition.
Judging  from  Chinweizu’s  view,  aids  are  unnecessary, especially as it involves the developed countries as donors and the   developing   countries   as   recipients,   seeing   that   such relationship is never on mutual benefit, but on master – servant relationship.

According to George Soros (Soros 2002 p 60), foreign aids are usually effective depending on the type of regime in the recipient country.  For him, if a regime is corrupt, such foreign aid  is  bound  to  be  misused.    For  instance,  in  the  case  of
repressive regimes, foreign aids ought to be confined to non- governmental channels.
So, George Soros is of the view that the effectiveness of foreign aids depends largely on the type of regime in place. This implies that liberal regimes justly and judiciously apply such aids  for  the  welfare  of  the  citizenry,  unlike  the  repressive regimes which usually use such aids to satisfy selfish ends.
Considering the above view point, George Soros is of the belief that such foreign aids, if to be given, ought not go through the    repressive    regimes,    but    preferably    through    non-
governmental channels.  This, no doubt, could help minimize or entirely remove the danger of wrongly directing such foreign aids.   In most cases, corrupt government officials divert them into selfish uses.
However, George Soros (Soros 2002 p 66) maintained that   the   World   Bank   pioneered   what   is   referred   to   as comprehensive   Development   framework   (CDF),   with   the International  Monetary  Fund  (IMF),  together  with  the  World Bank, requires a poverty Reduction Strategy paper (PRSP) in connection  with concessional  loans  and  debt forgiveness  for highly indebted poor countries.  This new initiative is still in its infancy, but seems promising.   George Soros maintained that poverty reduction strategies fail as a result of the fact that donor institutions like the World Bank or the IMF and the other donor agencies are often obliged by the standard rules to carry out their    activities    through    the    governmental    channels.
 Unfortunately, this bureaucratic strategy exposes such aids to corruption that emanate from government officials who usually
 divert  such  aids  to  their  private  pockets.    So,  there  is  the pressing need to go beyond governmental channels.
In summary, George Soros is of the view that the efficacy of foreign aids is strongly dependent on the channel through which the aids are delivered, and the sincerity of the regime in power in the recipient country.
The  above  illustrations  demonstrate  African  countries’ perception of the so-called foreign aid and their desire to attain development through their own track.
In the view of Chinweizu, (Chinweizu, p. 252), “the trouble with foreign aid is not that it is given, but rather, that its givers use it to stimulate a perverse kind of development”.
From the reviewed literatures so far, it is observable that no    attention    was    directed    towards    restrategizing    the international donor agencies towards better performance.  With this  new  approach  in  place,  poverty  reduction  through  the international  donor  agencies  would  be  more  realistic,  more effective and more realizable.  As a result, this research work is centred on filling the above gap.   So, the international donor agencies should be repositioned by finding new strategies to enhance their performance.   This, nor doubt, would effectively help  in  reducing  the  poverty  level  in  developing  countries, thereby improving their economies.
1.4 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

For  clearer  analysis  and  understanding  of  this  study, Dependency  theory  is  hereby  applied  as  the  theoretical framework.
Dependency Theory is an attempt to explain the failure of the third world countries to develop.  The theory owes its largest debt to the work of Karl Marx and Lenin.  Other proponents of the  Dependency  theory  include  Wikipedia,  Raul  Prebisch, Vincent Ferraro, Robinson Rojas, Chinweizu, Walter Rodney, etc.
 The  dependency  theory  maintains  that  the  developing (third  world)  countries  are  characterized  by extreme  form  of underdevelopment.  This situation, according to the proponents of the dependency theory is produced by the dependency of the Third World countries on the more developed countries.
According to the proponents of the Dependency theory, the development of capitalism  in Western Europe led to the creation of an international political economy driven by a world wide  division  of  labour  in  which  the  metropolitan  capitalist countries   achieved   dominance   over   the   underdeveloped countries.
Dependency theory has it that the cause of low level of development in the less economically developed counties is the reliance and dependence of such underdeveloped countries on the more economically developed countries. That is to say that the  underdeveloped  countries  are  underdeveloped  because they rely on the developed countries.   Furthermore, the theory maintains that the undeveloped counties are underdeveloped as a  consequence  of  their  being  incorporated  into  the  global capitalist system. This incorporation gave rise to the centre – periphery    relationship    which    made    the    underdeveloped
countries more of a servant in the global capitalist system. This situation   positioned   the   underdeveloped   countries   in   a dependent condition, as they lack the sufficient resources to act independently in their relationship with the developed countries. Dependent countries, because of their subordinate role in the world  capitalist  system,  are  unable  to  make  independent decisions concerning the pace and direction of growth of their national economies.  Rather, the issue of what to produce, how to produce, how much to produce, and for whom to produce are decided by an international structure and process outside the control of the developing countries.  This development therefore principally constrains and fundamentally distorts the nature of development  and  underdevelopment  in  the  underdeveloped countries.
Such dependence is manifested in foreign loans, grants and  aids  granted  to  the  underdeveloped  countries  by  the developed    countries    through    foreign    government    and
international donor agencies.
In the view of the proponents of the Dependency theory, dependency  and  reliance  on  such  foreign  aid  is  counter- productive, as such aids rarely influence development.
Therefore, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), as an agency for promoting development in the Third World  countries  falls  short  of  expectations.    Its  activities  in Enugu state of Nigeria fails to promote sustainable livelihood among the poor masses. So, the Dependency theory is hereby applied in explainingthe activities of UNDP in Enugu state

1.5 HYPOTHESIS
 This research work could only assume scientific posture if it is guided by a hypothetical statement.  The whole essence of this study is to validate or nullify the hypothesis of this research work through the research findings.
The  hypothesis  for  this  research  work  is:  The  UNDP poverty  Reduction  programme  in  Enugu  state  has  not improved the living standard of the people.
1.6 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION

Data  collection  for  this  study  would  be  done  through
observation and secondary source of data.
In the observation technique, the researcher would visit most of the project sites of the UNDP to see the real things on ground. This would offer real assessment of such projects.
Secondly, the secondary source of data collection would as well be applied.  Here, the researcher would consult relevant and related literatures.   This could be facilitated through the access to libraries, official documents, the Internet, etc.
 As  a  result  several  test  books  journals,  official  documents, newspapers, magazines seminar papers, etc. were consulted by the researcher, of this research report.
1.7 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS

In analyzing the data for this research report, percentage and other related measures of central tendency were applied. However,  certain indicators  should  be used in analyzing  the data. The indicators include:
 i)the number of sustainable job engagements created for the poor by the UNDP,
 ii)the  change  in  the  living  standard  of  the  people  of Enugu state, especially the poor,
 iii)the continued maintenance and functionability of  the UNDP projects after accomplishment.
   REFERENCES
Chnweizu (1978) The West and the Rest of US, Nok Publishers, Lagos.
Lawal, A.A. (2000) Management of Poverty and Wealth in Nigeria   and  the   US,   being   an   article   in   the ‘Empowerment of the civil society in a Democracy’, edited by Oyin Ogumaba, Anchor print Ltd, Ile-Ife.
Maduagwu. A (2000) Alleviating Poverty in Nigeria.
www.atbis.com/analysis/alleviatingpoverty.htm.
Mohamed A. (2000) “PAP: Another White Elephant”, Crystal
Magazine, March, 2000.
Offiong. D.A. (1980) Imperialism and Dependency, Forth
Dimension Publishers, Enugu.
 Onshi. D.N. (2004), Transition Report on Integration of UNDP Monitoring   and   Evaluation   Unit   Into   Economic Development Unit, Government House, Enugu.
Phil-Eze (2000) ‘Poverty Alleviation Strategies in Rural/Conflict  Areas  of  Abia  state,  Nigeria’,  being  a paper presented at conflict Resolution/Good Governance workshop held at Michael Okpara Auditorium, Umuahia, Abia state on 17-19 July, 2000.
Soros, G. (2002) George Soros on Globalization, Public
Affairs Ltd, Oxford.

UN systems in Nigeria 2001: a UNDP Publication.
Varma. S.P. (1999), Modern Political Theory, Vikas Publishing

House, PVT Ltd. New Delhi.

INTERNATIONAL DONOR AGENCIES AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (UNDP)POVERTY REDUCTION ACTIVITIES IN ENUGU STATE.

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Details

Type Project
Department Political Science
Project ID POL0477
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
Chapters 6 Chapters
No of Pages 100 Pages
Methodology Descriptive
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Political Science
    Project ID POL0477
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 6 Chapters
    No of Pages 100 Pages
    Methodology Descriptive
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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