INTERNATIONAL DONOR AGENCIES AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (UNDP)POVERTY REDUCTION ACTIVITIES IN ENUGU STATE.
Poverty, conflicts, disease, corruption, political instability, poor policy implementation, etc, are some of the numerous factors that constitute a serious challenge to the economic development in the developing countries. In Nigeria, a lot of measures have been put in place to ensure economic development. One of such outstanding measures is poverty reduction. Poverty reduction efforts in Nigeria are aimed at improving the standard of living of the Nigerian people. As a result, successive governments in Nigeria have initiated and adopted various programmes towards poverty reduction, they include the Operation Feed the Nation (OFN), Green Revolution (GR), Directorate of Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructures (DFRRI), Family Support Programme (FSP), Family Economic Advancement Programme (FEAP), Poverty Alleviation
Programme (PAP), Agricultural Development Programme (ADP), National Directorate of Employment (NDE), National Agricultural Land Development Authority (NALDA), among others.
More so, foreign assistance is also sought in seeking solutions to the problem of poverty in Nigeria. In this respect, International Donor Agencies are often allowed to play great role. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is one such agencies that operate in Enugu State. Expectations are that such donor agencies would impact positively in such developmental activities.
The problem of the developing countries is that their hope and reliance on foreign assistance, most often, helps in weakening or slowing down development in such developing countries. In respect of this, the international donor agencies such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Department for International Development (DFID),United States Agency for International Development (USAID) etc., upon their symbolic development activities, fall short of development realities. This is as a result of their lack of touch with the target population, the poor.
So, to theoretically explain this research report, the Dependency theory is hereby applied. The central message of the theory is that developing countries should ensure real and actual development through home-grown efforts, rather than depending on foreign assistance which further deepens them into underdevelopment.
The research methodology applied here include observation and secondary source of data. Therefore, visits to project sites of the UNDP in Enugu state was personally done by the researcher of this research report. More so, relevant literatures were consulted.
At the end of the research, the followings were made:
1. Previous efforts by past Nigerian governments towards poverty reduction could not help reduce poverty in Nigeria
2. The communities that benefited from the UNDP projects in Enugu state were relatively few.
3. The so-called UNDP projects in Enugu state were mainly executed and controlled by the Enugu state government rather than being directly done by the UNDP.
4. The UNDP projects are small-scale in nature, and so, could not guarantee sustainable livelihood.
5. The UNDP projects easily fall into depreciation as they lack proper maintenance.
6. The micro credit loans given to few individuals were so infinitesimal that it could not bring about positive change in the lives of the beneficiaries.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Statement of the Problem -
1.1 Objective of the study -
1.2 Significance of the study
1.3 Literature review
1.4 Theoretical Framework
1.6 Method of data collection
1.7 Method of data analysis
CHAPTER TWO: THE HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF UNDP ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
2.0 Historical overview
2.1 UNDP Operational Framework (1960-1999)
2.2 UNDP Operational Framework (2000-2007)
CHAPTER THREE: UNDP POVERTY REDUCTION ACTIVITIES IN ENUGU STATE
3.0 The UNDP Goal in Enugu state
3.1 The Integrated Community Development Project
3.2 Capacity Building
3.3 Micro credit Administration
3.4.0 Benchmark of UNDP poverty reduction in Enugu state
3.4.1 Achievement of the UNDP in Enugu state
3.4.2 Shortcomings or failures of UNDP in Enugu state
CHAPTER FOUR: PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE UNDP AND ENUGU STATE GOVERNMENT
4.1 Achievements of UNDP in Enugu state
4.2 Shortcomings or failures of UNDP in Enugu state
CHAPTER FIVE: STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE UNDP PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA
5.0 Background -
5.1 Recommendation -
CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, AND CONCLUSION
6.0 Summary -
6.1 Conclusion -
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
This research report is given scientific structure, as indicated in this chapter. As a result, this chapter is made up of the statement of the problem, the objective of the study, the significance of the study, the literature review, the theoretical framework, the hypothesis, the method of data collection, and the method of data analysis.
1.0 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This research report is driven by the continued high poverty rate in Enugu state of Nigeria, irrespective of the increasing effort towards poverty reduction. In this respect, the UNDP engaged in various poverty reduction activities in Enugu state, the result of which could not bring about considerable positive change, enough to effectively reduce the impact of poverty on the people.
In addition to the UNDP, other strategies are put in place by various Nigerian governments towards poverty reduction and improved livelihood. Some of these strategies are in the nature of such programmes like the green revolution, the directorate of food, roads, and rural infrastructures, the operation feed the nation, the family support programme, the poverty alleviation programme, etc.
2003 – 2007 serves as the scope of this research study.
The Green Revolution (GR)
On assumption of office in 1979, Alhaji Shehu Shagari gave priority attention to agriculture through the then newly articulated Green Revolution programme. With this programme, Alhaji Shehu Shagari approved the purchase and distribution of certain inputs and equipment to farmers. There and then,
tractors, fishing trawlers, livestock, feeds, improved seeds, etc were purchased and distributed. A massive campaign was
launched throughout the country to boost the production of seeds to be supported by the provision of inputs and organized
The Directorate of Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI) In 1986, General Ibrahim Babangida established the Directorate of Food, Roads and rural Infrastructure to provoke rural development. The aim of this scheme was to provide feeder roads, electricity and potable water and toilet facilities for the rural dwellers.
“The project gulped a whopping sum of 1.9 billion Naira (about 80 billion Naira toady’s value), without the target audience benefiting from them” (Maduagwu, 2000, p 3). In addition, the Babangida government set up the Peoples Bank,the Community bank, and the National Economic
Reconstruction Fund as financial institutions to offer the Nigerian people access to credit facilities. As well, the Better Life for Rural Women was set by the same government to cater for the Nigerian poor especially the rural women. The Better
Life for Rural Women ended up being hijacked by the rich who
were allies to the wife of the president.
The Operation Feed the Nation (OFN)
Launched on 22 May, 1976, the OFN was one of the economic measures adopted by the General Murtala Mohammed/Olusegun Obasanjo regime. The launching of the Operation Feed the Nation was aimed at increasing agricultural production in order to make food more abundant for the people.
The Operation Feed the Nation was designed to increase food production, arrest the drift from rural to urban centres, provide employment, generate surplus food for export, etc. To ensure the workability of this programme, the government provided agricultural inputs, such as improved seedlings, fertilizers, pesticides, marketing and storage arrangements, etc. In addition, university students were mobilized, trained and deployed in their Local Governments to teach the farmers modern techniques and methods of farming. The Operation Feed the Nation was intended to enable Nigerians appreciate the dignity of labour.
However, the Operation Feed the Nation could not fulfill its purposed goals. The scheme was destroyed by corruption among the government officials handling the projects, poor funding, and insincerity. At the end, the scheme could not live up to expectation.
The Family Support Programme (FSP)
In 1993, General Sani Abacha and his wife set up the Family Support Programme and the family Economic
Advancement Programme (FEAP). The two schemes were aimed at catering for the poor in Nigeria.
The Family Support Programme alone gulped over ten billion naira while the Family Economic Advancement
Programme consumed equally a similar amount. At the end, not much impact was made in the lives of the poor Nigerians.
The Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP) On assumption of office in 1999, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo introduced the National Poverty Alleviation
Programme, which later metamorphosed into National Poverty
Eradication Programme. According to the United Nations
Systems in Nigeria, 2001, p. 70, the poverty Alleviation Programme was aimed at providing immediate employment to an estimated two hundred thousand job seekers over a twelve month period.
The Poverty Alleviation Programme, unfortunately, ended up being hijacked by the implementing officers and political party loyalists.
Meanwhile, other related poverty Alleviation schemes or programmes include the River Basin and Rural Development Authorities (RBRDA), National Directorate of Employment (NDE), Nomadic Education Programme (NEP), National Agricultural Land Development Authority (NALDA), Oil Mineral
producing Areas Development Commission (OMPADEC), now transformed into Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC), Nigeria Agricultural Co-operative Bank (NACB), Peoples Bank of Nigeria, National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS), Nigeria Industrial Development bank (NIDB), etc.
The above programmes and schemes are all directed towards economic improvement through poverty reduction. Though the programmes and schemes may sound purposeful, their implementation appears a different thing altogether. The problem may arise from the implementation officials who tend to be corrupt, or from the government that initiated such programme and later reneged on the goal of the programme through insincerity or failure to effectively fund such
programmes. This, according to Mohamed (Crystal Magazine, March, 2000, p. 19) serves as the reason behind the modification or the scrapping of such schemes, seeing that the schemes fail in addressing the vexed poverty question.
Side by side with some of the above schemes are some international donor agencies which as well, work in the spirit of reducing poverty in Nigeria. Some of the agencies include the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the Department for International Development (DFID), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, etc.
Encouraged by the desire to stem the tide of poverty, the Enugu state government partnered with the UNDP. The overall goal is to propel the state along the path of poverty alleviation through the promotion of full and productive employment and sustainable human development.
The activities of the United Nations Development Programme in Enugu state are grouped into two packages, namely;
i) the integrated Community Development project,
ii)the financial Disbursement and Resource Mobilization.
According to the UNDP Transition Report, 2004 (pp 10),
80% of the total development fund earmarked for Enugu state was reallocated to Integrated Community Development Project, while 20% was for Capacity Building.
Under the Integrated Community Development project, sixteen communities were selected by the Enugu state government to receive assistance for the implementation of at least four projects as contained in the signed Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). The benefiting communities include
Ugwogo Nike, Agbani, Mbu, Edem, Aguobu owa, Iheakpu Awka, Obinagu Uwani, Obunoffia, Mpu, Eke, Umuida, Oduma, Ameze, Aji, Akpawfu and Abor.
The above communities were earmarked to benefit in the UNDP assisted projects which are in the areas of water supply healthcare, sewing, hair dressing equipment, livestock, Garri processing, skill acquisition, road maintenance, etc.
In the area of financial Disbursement and resource mobilization, the Micro-Finance Institution (MFI) disbursed the sum of 5.2 million Naira on behalf of Enugu state government to eight-two groups for various income-generating ventures (Transition Report, 2004. pp. 6). This was aimed at encouraging capital formation for micro entrepreneurial development as well as to expand economic activities in rural communities.
However, it was observed that necessary maintenance attention is not given to such projects that were carried out to reduce poverty in Enugu state. The so-called financial disbursement was not sufficient and effective to bring about sustainable change in the life of the people so affected. Moreover, the involvement of the Enugu state government in the activities associated with the poverty reduction scheme calls for questions about the objectivity and sincerity of the people carrying out the scheme.
Following the above shortcomings in respect of the UNDP and poverty reduction in Enugu state, this research work is geared towards filling the gap by finding answers to the following research questions:
1) Is there considerable reduction in poverty level in Enugu state within 2003 and 2007?
2) Has the UNDP poverty reduction efforts improved the living standard of the people of Enugu state?
1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The issue of development stands one of the national priorities of every government. Nonetheless, governments channel both domestic and foreign approaches in pursuance of national development.
This research work is aimed at assessing the successes and failures in respect of efforts employed in ensuring national development in Nigeria through poverty reduction schemes.
Such investigative assessment would learn on finding answers to the above research questions.
So, the objective of this research work includes:
1) To find out the extent to which the UNDP has reduced poverty in Enugu state.
2) To examine the nature of partnership between the UNDP and Enugu state government.
3) To examine the specific projects accomplished by the UNDP in Enugu state, in relation to such projects’ influence on the living standard of the people.
4) To provide more effective strategies to enhance UNDP performance in Nigeria.
1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this research work is based on the
consideration that its findings would help re-direct the Nigerian economic policy. Thus, the new economic policy would favour a shift from dependence on foreign donor agencies to a domestically-sewn economic policy which would serve as a gateway to a more realistic development.
Meanwhile, this research work would offer solutions to the problem of poverty and development in Nigeria. It would, as well, improve on the already existing knowledge about the role of foreign assistance to the developing countries of the world.
1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW
Undoubtedly, the nature of this study requires that some related literatures be looked at. These literatures would be considered, assessed and improved upon where necessary.
Regarding poverty, its problems and solutions, Nigerian governments have been putting up efforts towards alleviating poverty.
According to Anthony Maduagwu (Maduagwu, 2000 pp.
1), the reasons why the past poverty alleviation attempts failed include:
1. the politics of personal rule; which is a destructive political system in which the rivalries and struggles of powerful and willful men, rather than impersonal institutions, ideologies, public policies, class interests, are fundamental in shaping political life.
2. the top – down big man approach; in which poverty alleviation programmes are done in a master – servant kind of relationship in which government claims to know and understand what being poor means, who the poor is, and what is to be poor. He therefore argues that only the poor understands poverty and so, it is only the poor that know how their poverty could be alleviated.
He offered some solution which could be applied in tackling poverty. His suggestions include addressing
environmental problems, upward review of salaries and wages, addressing the problems of ethnic – based crises, curbing corruption, etc.
Adebayo. O. Lawal, in a book edited by Oyin Ogunba (Ogunba2000, pp 207 - 208), cited that despite several millions of Naira voted for various poverty alleviation programmes in Nigeria by Nigeria government, none succeeded in registering any tangible positive impact on the poor masses in both the urban and rural area. Lawal blamed the failure on the various personnel in charge of the schemes. He maintained that such officials colluded with the powers that be in misappropriating the fund that were meant for financing the various poverty alleviation projects.
Comparatively, Lawal maintained that poverty in developed countries is a minor problem because of such countries productive economy, labour absorptive capacity, good governance, efficient tax system, committed leadership, welfare system, and sensitiveness of government to the plight of the populace. In such countries, the national output that is annually generated is sufficient to afford a more equitable distribution of income to the effect that each person will be above poverty line so long as the rate of population growth is properly controlled. His solution to poverty in Nigeria include: Nigerian government must declare total war on poverty and borrow foreign technique as mentioned above. This would ensure consistent and pragmatic implementation of anti poverty programmes.
Phil-Eze, in his own view (Phil-Eze 2000), maintained that considerable efforts have been made by successive Nigerian governments towards poverty reduction. These efforts include international agencies all being indicative of the Nigerian government awareness of the poverty level and suffering of the Nigerians.
Phil-Eze condemns a top-bottom approach to poverty
reduction; rather, he suggests a bottom-top approach. This approach, he sees as more realistic, arguing that reaching the hearts of the people established control and co-operation of the people.
His main focus is the rural/conflict areas (conflict area here being the area of the country where the carrying capacity of the land falls short of its population needs, in terms of food and national resources). To him, for the attainment of poverty alleviation in our rural/conflict areas, the poor must be driven to it by hope supported by transparent honesty, through their traditional leaders and community leaders, not people from outside, or government. This idea therefore calls for participatory approach that is bottom-up oriented. In this participatory approach to poverty alleviation, the traditional leaders and leaders of autonomous communities have a complementary role to play for the success of the poverty alleviation scheme. He suggested the following strategies:
i.The traditional and community leaders should identify the needs of their people before any programme is embarked upon.
ii.The traditional and community leaders should be the ones to select the beneficiaries of such programmes.
iii.The proposed beneficiaries should be assisted through the provision of access to credits from financial houses,
iv.The traditional and community leaders should accord women equal participatory opportunities.
v. The traditional and community leaders should source and manage community-based information, including those related to health etc.
More so, the problem of poverty is a serious matter to any country and governments. Therefore its solutions could be sought from both within and outside the country in question. So, poverty could also be tackled through foreign aids. The aids could come in form of loans, grants, international governmental and non-governmental donor agencies. Some of the international donor agencies that are operating in Nigeria include the Department for International Development (DFID), the United States Agency for International Development, (USAID), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), etc.
By assessment, one could consider the operational effectiveness of the so-called donor agencies to the actual development within the host countries.
According to Daniel Offiong (Offiong, pp. 143 – 149), contemporary imperialism or neo-colonialism seeks to avoid direct political control or military intervention. Western interests are then preserved through the reinforcement of the infrastructure of dependence. These infrastructures include
African institutions and social classes which are geared toward foreign interests. These western interests are, there and then, accomplished in large measure through aid agencies.
Thus, in the view of Daniel Offiong, foreign aid (through the international donor agencies) tends to be counter- productive. This is as a result of the fact that such donor
agencies indirectly serve and represent the interest of the developed countries rather than serving the interest of the developing countries. This is reflected in the former president of the United States, John Kennedy’s definition of foreign Aid as “a method by which the United States maintained a position of influence and control around the world, and sustains a good many countries which would definitely collapse or pass into the communist Bloc” (Offiong, pp. 143-4). This imperialist statement by John Kennedy demonstrates the ontological reason behind the setting up of some donor agencies, especially as it concerns the cold war period. Judging from this statement therefore, foreign aids serve as the instrument of campaign for alliances, rather than promoting development in the recipient countries. Another significance of such foreign aids is that developing countries are looked upon by the developed counties as marketable commodities which could be afforded by the use of aids. Furthermore, aids are seen as coming from the corridors of political projections rather than economic projections. Offiong therefore underscores many areas of difference and discontent between the developed countries (donor countries) and the developing counties (recipient countries). In a summarized
form, the differences and discontents include:
i) The so-called foreign aids to the developing counties are always infinitesimal relative to need.
ii) The insufficient aid is usually secured after a prolonged and frustrating bargaining.
iii) Tying the aid to stringent and unbalanced trade relation between the donor countries and the recipient countries makes such aid more of imposed than offered.
iv) The donor countries give foreign aids mostly in order to project their image rather than to actually promote real development in the recipient countries.
v) The foreign aids, most often, back-fires. This implies that instead of generating more income for the recipient countries or improving the lives of people, such foreign aids worsen the economies of the recipient countries, thereby forcing them into more foreign debts.
In his book, the West and the Rest of Us, Chinweizu is of the view that, not that aids are given, but to what practical benefit they are to the recipient countries. This underscores the fact that aids are not given in good spirit by the donor countries, given the fact that the end product of such aids amounts to putting the recipient country in relatively worse economic condition.
Judging from Chinweizu’s view, aids are unnecessary, especially as it involves the developed countries as donors and the developing countries as recipients, seeing that such relationship is never on mutual benefit, but on master – servant relationship.
According to George Soros (Soros 2002 p 60), foreign aids are usually effective depending on the type of regime in the recipient country. For him, if a regime is corrupt, such foreign aid is bound to be misused. For instance, in the case of
repressive regimes, foreign aids ought to be confined to non- governmental channels.
So, George Soros is of the view that the effectiveness of foreign aids depends largely on the type of regime in place. This implies that liberal regimes justly and judiciously apply such aids for the welfare of the citizenry, unlike the repressive regimes which usually use such aids to satisfy selfish ends.
Considering the above view point, George Soros is of the belief that such foreign aids, if to be given, ought not go through the repressive regimes, but preferably through non-
governmental channels. This, no doubt, could help minimize or entirely remove the danger of wrongly directing such foreign aids. In most cases, corrupt government officials divert them into selfish uses.
However, George Soros (Soros 2002 p 66) maintained that the World Bank pioneered what is referred to as comprehensive Development framework (CDF), with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), together with the World Bank, requires a poverty Reduction Strategy paper (PRSP) in connection with concessional loans and debt forgiveness for highly indebted poor countries. This new initiative is still in its infancy, but seems promising. George Soros maintained that poverty reduction strategies fail as a result of the fact that donor institutions like the World Bank or the IMF and the other donor agencies are often obliged by the standard rules to carry out their activities through the governmental channels.
Unfortunately, this bureaucratic strategy exposes such aids to corruption that emanate from government officials who usually
divert such aids to their private pockets. So, there is the pressing need to go beyond governmental channels.
In summary, George Soros is of the view that the efficacy of foreign aids is strongly dependent on the channel through which the aids are delivered, and the sincerity of the regime in power in the recipient country.
The above illustrations demonstrate African countries’ perception of the so-called foreign aid and their desire to attain development through their own track.
In the view of Chinweizu, (Chinweizu, p. 252), “the trouble with foreign aid is not that it is given, but rather, that its givers use it to stimulate a perverse kind of development”.
From the reviewed literatures so far, it is observable that no attention was directed towards restrategizing the international donor agencies towards better performance. With this new approach in place, poverty reduction through the international donor agencies would be more realistic, more effective and more realizable. As a result, this research work is centred on filling the above gap. So, the international donor agencies should be repositioned by finding new strategies to enhance their performance. This, nor doubt, would effectively help in reducing the poverty level in developing countries, thereby improving their economies.
1.4 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
For clearer analysis and understanding of this study, Dependency theory is hereby applied as the theoretical framework.
Dependency Theory is an attempt to explain the failure of the third world countries to develop. The theory owes its largest debt to the work of Karl Marx and Lenin. Other proponents of the Dependency theory include Wikipedia, Raul Prebisch, Vincent Ferraro, Robinson Rojas, Chinweizu, Walter Rodney, etc.
The dependency theory maintains that the developing (third world) countries are characterized by extreme form of underdevelopment. This situation, according to the proponents of the dependency theory is produced by the dependency of the Third World countries on the more developed countries.
According to the proponents of the Dependency theory, the development of capitalism in Western Europe led to the creation of an international political economy driven by a world wide division of labour in which the metropolitan capitalist countries achieved dominance over the underdeveloped countries.
Dependency theory has it that the cause of low level of development in the less economically developed counties is the reliance and dependence of such underdeveloped countries on the more economically developed countries. That is to say that the underdeveloped countries are underdeveloped because they rely on the developed countries. Furthermore, the theory maintains that the undeveloped counties are underdeveloped as a consequence of their being incorporated into the global capitalist system. This incorporation gave rise to the centre – periphery relationship which made the underdeveloped
countries more of a servant in the global capitalist system. This situation positioned the underdeveloped countries in a dependent condition, as they lack the sufficient resources to act independently in their relationship with the developed countries. Dependent countries, because of their subordinate role in the world capitalist system, are unable to make independent decisions concerning the pace and direction of growth of their national economies. Rather, the issue of what to produce, how to produce, how much to produce, and for whom to produce are decided by an international structure and process outside the control of the developing countries. This development therefore principally constrains and fundamentally distorts the nature of development and underdevelopment in the underdeveloped countries.
Such dependence is manifested in foreign loans, grants and aids granted to the underdeveloped countries by the developed countries through foreign government and
international donor agencies.
In the view of the proponents of the Dependency theory, dependency and reliance on such foreign aid is counter- productive, as such aids rarely influence development.
Therefore, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), as an agency for promoting development in the Third World countries falls short of expectations. Its activities in Enugu state of Nigeria fails to promote sustainable livelihood among the poor masses. So, the Dependency theory is hereby applied in explainingthe activities of UNDP in Enugu state
This research work could only assume scientific posture if it is guided by a hypothetical statement. The whole essence of this study is to validate or nullify the hypothesis of this research work through the research findings.
The hypothesis for this research work is: The UNDP poverty Reduction programme in Enugu state has not improved the living standard of the people.
1.6 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
Data collection for this study would be done through
observation and secondary source of data.
In the observation technique, the researcher would visit most of the project sites of the UNDP to see the real things on ground. This would offer real assessment of such projects.
Secondly, the secondary source of data collection would as well be applied. Here, the researcher would consult relevant and related literatures. This could be facilitated through the access to libraries, official documents, the Internet, etc.
As a result several test books journals, official documents, newspapers, magazines seminar papers, etc. were consulted by the researcher, of this research report.
1.7 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS
In analyzing the data for this research report, percentage and other related measures of central tendency were applied. However, certain indicators should be used in analyzing the data. The indicators include:
i)the number of sustainable job engagements created for the poor by the UNDP,
ii)the change in the living standard of the people of Enugu state, especially the poor,
iii)the continued maintenance and functionability of the UNDP projects after accomplishment.
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Lawal, A.A. (2000) Management of Poverty and Wealth in Nigeria and the US, being an article in the ‘Empowerment of the civil society in a Democracy’, edited by Oyin Ogumaba, Anchor print Ltd, Ile-Ife.
Maduagwu. A (2000) Alleviating Poverty in Nigeria.
Mohamed A. (2000) “PAP: Another White Elephant”, Crystal
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Offiong. D.A. (1980) Imperialism and Dependency, Forth
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Onshi. D.N. (2004), Transition Report on Integration of UNDP Monitoring and Evaluation Unit Into Economic Development Unit, Government House, Enugu.
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