ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THE FATTY SEED EXTRACT OF VITELLARIA PARADOXA (SAPOTACEAE)

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  • Department: Pharmaceutical Science
  • Project ID: PHS0085
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ABSTRACT 

Fatty seed extracts of Vitellaria paradoxa (Sapotaceae), an indigenous plant of West Africa is a popular remedy for arthritis and swellings. This study investigated the knowledge, prevalence and pattern of use of the fatty extract also known as shea butter in clinically diagnosed arthritic patients as well as its effects on acute (topical and systemic) and chronic inflammation in rodents. The knowledge, prevalence and pattern of use were determined using pretested questionnaire in clinically diagnosed patients. The antiinflammatory activity was studied using xylene-induced edema of the mouse ear, carragennan-induced edema of the rat paw, formaldehyde-induced arthritis and cotton pellet granuloma test in rats. The result showed that of the 164 respondents, 94.1% know about shea butter and 59.6% have used it mainly as a massage ointment once or twice daily. However, 73.7% of the users combine this remedy with analgesics to achieve relief. The pharmacological tests showed that topical application of shea butter inhibited the acute edema of the mouse ear. Oral administration also inhibited the development of systemic acute edema of the rat paw in a non-dose related manner. The inhibitory effect was significant (p



TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page……………………………………………………………………………………….. i

Certification ………………………………………………………………………………........ ii

Dedication ……………………………………………………………………………………... iii

Acknowledgement …………………………………………………………………………….. iv

Table of Content……………………………………………………………………………….. vi

List of Abbreviations………………………………………………………………………….. ix

List of Figures …………………………………………………………………………………. xi

List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………………... xii

Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………….. xiii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Inflammation……………………………………………………………………... 1

1.2 Causes of Inflammation…………………………………………………………... 2

1.3 Types of Inflammation…………………………………………………………… 2

1.3.1 Acute Inflammation……………………………………………………………… 3

1.3.2 Chronic Inflammation…………………………………………………………….. 4

1.4 The Inflammatory Response……………………………………………………… 5

1.5 Mediators of Inflammation……………………………………………………….. 7

1.5.1 Plasma Derived Mediators………………………………………………………… 7

1.5.2 Cell Derived Mediators…………………………………………………………….8

1.5.2.1 Lipid Derived Mediators………………………………………………………… 10

1.6 Biomarkers of Inflammation……………………………………………………… 12

1.7 Disorders of Acute Inflammation…………………………………………………. 13

1.8 Disorders of Chronic Inflammation………………………………………………. 13

1.8.1 Arthritis …………………………………………………………………………… 14

1.8.1.1 Types of Arthritis………………………………………………………………….. 14

1.8.1.1.1 Non-inflammatory Arthritis………………………………………………………. 14

1.8.1.1.2 Inflammatory Arthritis……………………………………………………………. 15

1.9 Agents Used in Management of Inflammation/ Arthritis……………………….. 16

1.9.1 Non-steroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs………………………………………….. 17

1.9.1.1 Non selective COX Inhibitors……………………………………….................... 18

1.9.1.2 Selective COX -2 Inhibitors……………………………………………………. 20

1.9.2 Corticosteroids…………………………………………………………………… 21

1.9.3 Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs……………………………………….21

1.9.4 Biological Disease Modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs)………………. 23

1.9.5 Medicinal Plants………………………………………………………………….. 24

1.10 Botanical Profile of Vitellaria paradoxa……………………………………….. 26

1.10.1 Plant Taxonomy…………………………………………………………………. 26

1.10.2 Plant Description………………………………………………………………… 27

1.10.3 Geographical Distribution…………………………………………………………. 28

1.10.4 Ethnomedicinal Uses………………………………………………………………. 28

1.10.5 Literature Review……………………………………………………...................... 29

1.11 Aim and Scope of Study……………………………………………………… 30

CHAPTER TWO: MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.0 Materials and methods…………………………………………………………….. 31

2.1 Materials…………………………………………………………………………… 31

2.1.1 Animals……………………………………………………………….…………... 31

2.1.2 Chemical and Solvents…………………………………………………………….. 31

2.1.3 Drugs………………………………………………………………………………. 31

2.1.4 Equipment…………………………………………………………………………. 31

2.1.5 Patients…………………………………………………………………………….. 32

2.1.6 Shea butter…………………………………………………………………………. 32

2.2 Methods……………………………………………………………………………. 32

2.2.1 Data collection…………………………………………………………………….. 32

2.2.2 Pharmacological tests…………………………………………………………… 33

2.2.2.1 Systemic acute inflammation of the rat paw…………………………………….. 33

2.2.2.2 Topical acute edema of the mouse ear…………………………………………. 33

2.2.2.3 Formaldehyde induced arthritis in rats………………………………………….. 34

2.2.2.4 Cotton pellet induced granuloma in rats……………………………..................... 35

2.2.3 Statistical analysis………………………………………………………………. 36

CHAPTER THREE: RESULTS

3.0 Results……………………………………………………………………………… 37

3.1 Demographic characteristics of respondents……………………………………... 37

3.2 Respondents’ knowledge of their disease Condition………………………………. 37

3.3 Respondents’ knowledge and use of shea butter………………………………….. 37

3.4 Effects of shea butter on systemic acute inflammation………………………… 48

3.5 Effects of shea butter on topical acute inflammation………………...................... 48

3.6 Effects of shea butter on experimental arthritis………………………………… 48

3.2.4 Effects of shea butter granuloma formation………………………...................... 48

CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

4.0 Discussion and conclusion………………………………………………………………. 53

4.1 Discussion……………………………………………………………………………….. 53

4.2 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………….. 56

References………………………………………………………………………………………. 57

Appendix 1……………………………………………………………………………………… 67

Appendix 2……………………………………………………………………………………… 69

ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THE FATTY SEED EXTRACT OF VITELLARIA PARADOXA (SAPOTACEAE)
For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
or
+234 8093 423 853

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  • Type: Project
  • Department: Pharmaceutical Science
  • Project ID: PHS0085
  • Access Fee: ₦5,000 ($14)
  • Pages: 82 Pages
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 96
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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Pharmaceutical Science
    Project ID PHS0085
    Fee ₦5,000 ($14)
    No of Pages 82 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

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