+234 813 0686 500
+234 809 3423 853
info@grossarchive.com
+234 813 0686 500
info@grossarchive.com

THE PREVALENCE OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIA PATIENTS

  • Type: Project
  • Department: Microbiology
  • Project ID: MCB0093
  • Price: ₦3,000 ($20)
  • Chapters: 5 Chapters
  • Pages: 65 Pages
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 729

For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
or
+234 8093 423 853
ABSTRACT

The prevalence of streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia patients using university of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu as a case study was carried out based on the fact of the pneumonia is one of the commonest afflictions of the aged people and children worldwide. A total of 50 samples were collected. 12 (24%) of the sample were from sputum while 38 (76%) were from nasopharyned swabs from children who can not produce sputum using sterilized disposable swab sticks. 12 (24%) of the patients were adults and 38 (76%) were children under the age of the. 29 (58%) of the patients were made while 21 (42%) were female. The media used for isolation of bacteria were blood agar and chocolate agar plates. This was followed by their appropriate biochemical tests  5 different organisms were isolated. They streptococcus pneumonia’s 13 (26%) staphylococcus 17 (34%) streptococcus viridian’s 3(6%) other staphylococcus species 6(12%) mixed growth of staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus specie 1(2%) and non –significant growth of staphylococci and streptococci 10(20%). This study shows that the frequency of staphylococcusaureus is prater than streptococcus pneumonia’s which was earlier regarded as the most common pathogen that cause pneumonia.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction                                                               

1.1       Pathophysiology of bacterial pneumonia                   

1.2       Classification of pneumonia                                      

1.3       Causes of pneumonia                                                             

1.4       Justification                                                                            

1.5       Aims and objective                                                                  

1.6       Hypothesis                                                                             

1.7       Statement of problem                                                                        

1.8       Diagnosis                                                                                           

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Litterateur review                                                                  

2.1       Epidemiology of pneumonia                                      

2.2 Actiologic Agents of pneumonia                                     

2.3       Pathogenesis                                                                          

2.4       Mode of Transmission                                                           

2.5       Risk group                                                                              

2.6       mortality morbidity                                                                

2.7       Symptoms of pneumonia                                                       

2.8       Treatment / management                                                        

2.9       prevention                                                                              

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Materials and Method                                                

3.1       Material                                                                                  

3.2       Collection of Samples                                                           

3.3       Method of Sample Analysis                                      

3.4       Biochemical test to identify bacteria                           

3.5       Antimicrobial susceptibility test                                              

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       result                                                                                      

4.1 Sources of  sample and type of bacteria isolated

4.2       Age and sex distribution                                                        

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Discussion conclusion                                                

5.1       Discussion                                                                              

5.2       conclusion                                                                              

5.3       Recommendation                                                                   

REFERENCES                                                                                               

APPENDIX 1                                                                                    

APPENDIX II                                                                                                                        LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1:       Appearance of the growth in the plates                     

TABLE 2: Characteristics of isolates                                                            

Table 3:           Abbreviations                                                             

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE I: presentation of the age distribution of patients in pie chart.

FIGURE II: Presentation of the sex distribution of patients in pie chart

FIGURE III: Presentation of percentage of frequency of organization isolated in Bar chart.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0              INTRODUCTION

Bacterial  an  something cause severe infection in children the elderly and other people with weakened immune system is people that are more susceptible to infection because of an overal impairment of the immune response example Hiv infection chronic resease advanced aged and or function of defense mechanisms (example smoking chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) tumours inhaled toxins and aspiration (Stephen 2002). 

The trachea, bronchi and lungs are normally free from communal and potentially pathogenic bacteria, but when their reference  are upset they       are liable to be invaded by organization from the throat or nose (fraser, 1996) one of the commonest infection of the lower respiratory tract is pneumonia (Jawetz, et ,2001).

1.1              PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BACTERIAL PNEUMONIA

It is known that the inflammation of the lengs is called pneumonia it is pneumonia’s that result in the filling of alveoli with pus and fluid is called pneumonia (Naster et al 2001). Macrophages are numerous in the long issues and reality move into the alveoli and air ways to engaful infection agents,  thus helping to prevent pneumonia from developing but when there is upset of the defense mechanism, causative agents are then likely to enviable the host (Yolande and Broduem 1987).

Pneumonia is an infection caused by different bacterial like streptococcus pneumonia, staphylococcus aureus, pneumococci etc. and in several case can lead to death for instance, William henry Harrison, the with president  of the united states, contracted pneumonia during his inauguration in 1841 and ride after being in office for only 31 days. Other notable persons to succumb to pneumonia include sir Francis bacon in 1626, who died after  staffing chikens with now while conducting freezing experimente and Thomas stonewal Jackson in 1863, whose arm required amputation after he was shot by one of his own sentries (Stephen 2002). Pneumonia is prevalent in cold weather and during raing season.

1.2              CLASSIFICATION OF PNEUMONIA

Pneumonia can be classified into three

-Acute, hospital –acquired

-          Acute, community –acquired

-          Chronic pneumonia  (Inglis 1996)

a).        ACUTE COMMUNITY ACQUIRED:         this is defined as pneumonia whose onset occurs either prior to or immediately after mission to hospital. It is one of the classics of pneumonia that cause death worldwide (Fraser, 1996).

Patients with acute pneumonia usually have cough, chest signs and fever. The cough may or may not be productive of purulent sputum  (Stephen, 2002). The most important consequence of actuate pneumonia is improvement of respiratory function, which should be assessed as a first priority ( Frasch and concopcion, 2000).

b.                  ACUTE HOSPTAL ACQUIRED: This type of pneumonia affects smoker, patient with prior chest disense or following operation (especially thoracis and upper abdominal) and ventillated critically patient (inglis, 1996). The last group have the highest relative risk (Ross, 1994).

c.                   CHRONIC PNEUMONIA: This have a more insidious onset and prolong course than actuate pneumonia. There is no single symptom complex, so the diagnosis is often bused on radiological finding (Frasch and cocaplion, 2002). Cough may productive of parnlent sputum occasionally blood stained.

1.3              CAUSES OF PNEUMONIA

Cause for the development of pneumonia are extrinsic or intrinsic and various bacteria causative against exist (Nester et al 2001).

Extrinsic factor include exposure to a causative agent pulmonary irratante, or direct pulmonary injury, while intrinsic  factor are related to the host.

In  most cause, the primary infection is casued by qa virus eg Rhinovirus, Adanovirus etc. but there is often a secondary infection with a bacteria pathogen from the upper respiratory tract, most ommon is streptococcus pneumonia Gawatz et al, 2001) the streptococcus pneumonia also know as pnumococcus appears to be the primary cause of many cases of pneumonia, particularly ldorar and bronche pneumonia with Homophiles influenza as a frequent co- pathogen (Fraser, 1996) but often these pneumonic infection are triggered by a proceeding viral infection of the upper respiratory tract such as common cold (Wisconsin, 2003).

Other secondary invaders of the lower respiratory tract that can cause pneumonia are staphylococcus aureus, which may cause fatal pneumonia after streptococcus pneumonia (Staphen, 2002). Haemophilus influenza, Kiabsiella pneumonia etc Jawetz at al 2001).

1.4              JUSTIFICATION

Pneumonia infection is one of the major cause of death world wide and the infection is increasing rapidly in Enugu metropolis with streptococcus pneumoniae as the major pathogen (Okafor 1992). Therefore there is need to find out if this virulent organism is actually the primary bacterium that causes premnonia in Enugu metropolis. Although, many persons carry these bacteria harmlessly in their threat, mouth and nasopharyux and these are likely to contaminate the sputum as it is expected through the throat and mouth so as the commensal in nasopharynx which can equally contaminate the nasopharyueal swab (Ross, 1994).

1.5              AIMS AND OBJECTIVE

The aims and objective of this work are:

1.                  To isolate bacterial pathogens form pneumonia patients.

2.                  To ascertain the prevalence of streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia patient using UNTH as a cast study.

3.                  To determine the aga group and sex that are more susceptible to this infection.

1.6              HYPOTHESIS

Ho streptococcus pneumonia’s causes pneumonia

H1­ streptococcus does not cause pneumonia

H2 Streptococcus Pneumoniae have insight relationship on sex and age

1.7              STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Streptococcus pneumoniae is regarded as the commonest cause of pneumonia both in children and adults. Other bacteria have also been implicated as the cause of disease in severe case pneumonia can lead 15 death.

1.8              DIAGNOSIS

In pneumonia patients streptococcus pneumoniae and other organisms (Causative pathogens) are diagnosed when they are grown from cultures of sterile fluids such as sputum from adult and nasopherynged swab as in case of children who are unable to produce sputum the clinical  presentation varies from the mildly to extremely ill patients (Wisconsin 2003). Straptococcue pneumonia and other causative bacteria can be isolated from specimens when cultured on blood agar and chocolate agar plates. Media have been described which facilitate the isolation  of small numbers of pneumococci from sputum heavily contaminated with secondary invaders form   throat and mouth commensals of 5% horse blood is affective incubation should be in 5-10 % coq (Gilks, 1997) .

A list of biochemical tests are used in identify the presence of these bacteria. Catalase optochin sensitive test and bile solubility test for streptococcus pneumonia’s congulase test for staphylococcus aureus satellition test for Haemophilus influenza and citrate utilization for Klebsiella pneumoniae (Cheesbrough 1984).

THE PREVALENCE OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIA PATIENTS
For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
or
+234 8093 423 853

Share This
  • Type: Project
  • Department: Microbiology
  • Project ID: MCB0093
  • Price: ₦3,000 ($20)
  • Chapters: 5 Chapters
  • Pages: 65 Pages
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 729
Payment Instruction
Bank payment for Nigerians, Make a payment of ₦ 3,000 to

Bank GTBANK
gtbank
Account Name Obiaks Business Venture
Account Number 0211074565

Bitcoin: Make a payment of 0.0003 to

Bitcoin(Btc)

btc wallet
Copy to clipboard Copy text

500
Leave a comment...

    Details

    Type Project
    Department Microbiology
    Project ID MCB0093
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 65 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

    Related Works

    ABSTRACT The prevalence of streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia patients using university of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu as a case study was carried out based on the fact of the pneumonia is one of the commonest afflictions of the aged people and children worldwide. A total of 50 samples were collected. 12 (24%) of the sample were from... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The prevalence of streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia patients using university of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu as a case study was carried out based on the fact of the pneumonia is one of the commonest afflictions of the aged people and children worldwide. A total of 50 samples were collected. 12 (24%) of the sample were from... Continue Reading
    THE PEEVALENCE OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE IN PNEUMONIA PTIENTS IN ENUGU METROPOLI A CASE STUDY OF UNTH ENUGU. ABSTRACT The prevalence of streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia patients using university of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu as a case study was carried out based on the fact of the pneumonia is one of the commonest afflictions of... Continue Reading
    The growing threat and spread of antibiotic resistance by a wide range of common pathogens has led to increased investigations into traditional medicinal plants as alternatives. Honey has been used as a medicine since ancient times in many cultures and is still used in ‘folk medicine’. The moist environment of chronic wounds is an ideal growth... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The prevalence of viral hepatitis B among patients in National Orthopedic Hospital Enugu was studied. The samples comprised that of men , woman and children 200 in numbers, all patient of orthopedic Hospital Enugu. Laboratory investigation done were this HBs  tested which 110 patient out of the 200 patients tested positive,  and liver... Continue Reading
    Abstract Abstract Background: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is defined as serologically undetectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-ve), despite the presence of circulating HBV DNA (Allain, 2005). It has been documented that one of the frequent complications of HIV infection is hepatitis B co-infection and due to the common methods of... Continue Reading
                                          ABSTRACT The present study was to determine the prevalence of pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients using clinical samples (urine, skin lesion and pus) and environmental samples (sand, tap water, flowers). A total of thirty (30) samples were collected from patients, ten (10)... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The prevalence of viral hepatitis B among patients in National Orthopedic Hospital Enugu was studied. The samples comprised that of men , woman and children 200 in numbers, all patient of orthopedic Hospital Enugu. Laboratory investigation done were this HBs tested which 110 patient out of the 200 patients tested positive, and liver... Continue Reading
    PREVALENCE STUDY OF HEPATITIS B (AUSTRALIAN ANTIGEN) AMONG PATIENTS IN NATIONAL ORTHOPAEDIC HOSPITAL ENUGU. ABSTRACT The prevalence of viral hepatitis B among patients in National Orthopedic Hospital Enugu was studied. The samples comprised that of men , woman and children 200 in numbers, all patient of orthopedic Hospital Enugu. Laboratory... Continue Reading
    TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW DEVELOPMENTAL CYCLE OF CHLAMYDIA MORTALITY/MORBIDITY CHLAMYDIAL URETHRITIS MODE OF TRANSMISSION EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS DIAGNOSIS PREVENTION AND CONTROL TREATMENT/THERAPY CHAPTER THREE MATERIALS AND METHODS MATERIALS CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION,... Continue Reading
    Call Us
    Get this work
    whatsappWhatsApp Us