+234 813 0686 500
+234 809 3423 853
info@grossarchive.com
+234 813 0686 500
info@grossarchive.com

PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA IN THE URINE OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

  • Type: Project
  • Department: Microbiology
  • Project ID: MCB0062
  • Price: ₦3,000 ($20)
  • Chapters: 5 Chapters
  • Pages: 77 Pages
  • Methodology: Scientific
  • Reference: YES
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 706

For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
or
+234 8093 423 853
ABSTRACT
In order to access the prevalence and sensitivity pattern of urinary pathogens, 60 midstream urine samples from students of Caritas University were investigated using cultural methods. Samples were examined microscopically and cultured in blood agar and Macckonkey agar. Disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic testing. Of the 60 urine samples 48 yielded significant growth with a prevalence rate of 80%. It was observed that females were more infected than the males with a prevalence rate of 56.70% and 43.30% respectively under the ages of 18-25yrs.Escherichia coli was the most predominant. The isolates were very sensitive to Gentamycin, Nitrofurantoin and Ofloxacin which were the (most sensitive) and the most resistant were Tetracycline, Cortrimozol, Cephalexin and Ampicillin. Therefore, Nitrofurantoin, Gentamycin, Ofloxacin were strongly recommended for the treatment of UTI as indicated in the study.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPATER ONE
1.0    Introduction1    Aimsand objectivesofthestudy
CHAPTERTWO
2.0    Literaturereview
2.1    Microorganismsfoundinurineandtheiretiology
2.1.1    Bacteria
2.1.2    Viruses
2.1.3    Fungi
2.2.1    Protozoa
2.2.2    Entryofbacteriainto theurinarytract
2.2.3    Routesofbacteriainfection   
2.2.4    SymptomsofUTI
2.2.5    Diagnosis
2.2.6    Treatment
2.2.7    2.2.5.1AimsoftreatmentofUTI
2.2.5.2    Futurestrategiesintreatment ofbacteria/UTI
2.2.8    Preventionandcontrol
2.2.9    22.3.0 Antimicrobialresistance
2.3.1    Mechanismsofdrugresistance
2.3.1.1    Drug-inactivatingenzyme
2.3.1.2    Alterationinthetargetmolecule
2.3.1.3    Decreaseuptakeofthe drugs
2.3.1.4    Increasedeliminationofthedrugs
2.3.1.5    Conditionsinfluencingtheeffectivenessofdrugs
2.3.1.6    Population size
2.3.1.7    2.3.2.2 Populationcomposition
2.3.2.3    Concentrationandintensityofantimicrobialagent
2.3.2.4    Durationofexposure
2.3.2.5    Temperature172.3.3    Actionsofantimicrobialdrugs
2.3.3.1    Inhibitionofcellsynthesis
2.3.3.2    Inhibitionofcellmembrane
2.3.3.3    Inhibitionofnucleicacidsynthesis
2.3.3.4    Inhibitionofessentialmetabolites
CHAPTERTHREE
3.0    Materialsandmethods
3.1    Samplecollection  193.1.2    Antimicrobialsusceptibilitytest
3.1.3    Urinalysistest
3.2    Gramstaining
3.2.1    Biochemical test
3.2.2    Catalasetest
3.2.3    Coagulasetest
3.2.4    Motilitytest
3.2.5    Methyl test
3.2.6    Ureasetest
3.2.7    Indoletest
3.2.8    Citrateutilizationtest
CHAPTERFOUR
4.0    Result
CHAPTERFIVE
5.1    Discussion
5.2    Conclusion
5.3    Recommendation
5.4    References
Appendix IAppendixII
LIST OF TABLES
Table1:    Sex distribution of cases and prevalencerates
Table2:    Bacterialisolates ofpositivecases withprevalencerate
Table3:    TheSensitivity/Resistivitypatternsofbacterialisolates
Table4:    Biochemicaltestresults
LISTOFFIGURES:
Fig.1:Oxidasetest
Fig.2:Urease test
Fig.3 :    MacConkeyculture plate
Fig.4:    Catalasetest
Fig.5:    Indoletest
Fig.6:    Simmons citratetest
Fig.7:    Methyl redtest
Fig.8:    Vptest
Fig.9 :    Coagulasetest

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Gram negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain their crystal violet dye in the gram staining protocol. They are differentiated by their cell wall structure. The following characteristics are displayed by gram negative bacteria as follows


  • Cytoplasmic membrane

  • Thin peptidoglycan layer(much thinner than gram positive)

  • Outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharide outside the peptidoglycan layer

  • Porin exists in the outer membrane, which acts like pores

  • There is a space between the layer of peptidoglycan and the secondary cell membrane, called the periplasmic space

  • If present, flagella have four (4) supporting rings instead of two

  • No techoic acid or lipopolysaccharide
PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA IN THE URINE OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
or
+234 8093 423 853

Share This
  • Type: Project
  • Department: Microbiology
  • Project ID: MCB0062
  • Price: ₦3,000 ($20)
  • Chapters: 5 Chapters
  • Pages: 77 Pages
  • Methodology: Scientific
  • Reference: YES
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 706
Payment Instruction
Bank payment for Nigerians, Make a payment of ₦ 3,000 to

Bank GTBANK
gtbank
Account Name Obiaks Business Venture
Account Number 0211074565

Bitcoin: Make a payment of 0.0003 to

Bitcoin(Btc)

btc wallet
Copy to clipboard Copy text

500
Leave a comment...

    Details

    Type Project
    Department Microbiology
    Project ID MCB0062
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 77 Pages
    Methodology Scientific
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

    Related Works

    PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA IN THE URINE OF CARITAS UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ABSTRACT In order to access the prevalence and sensitivity pattern of urinary pathogens, 60 midstream urine samples from students of Caritas University were investigated using cultural methods. Samples were examined microscopically and... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT In order to access the prevalence and sensitivity pattern of urinary pathogens, 60 midstream urine samples from students of Caritas University were investigated using cultural methods. Samples were examined microscopically and cultured in blood agar and Macckonkey agar. Disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic testing. Of the 60... Continue Reading
    OF CARITAS UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ABSTRACT In order to access the prevalence and sensitivity pattern of urinary pathogens, 60 midstream urine samples from students of Caritas University were investigated using cultural methods. Samples were examined microscopically and... Continue Reading
    PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA IN THE URINE OF CARITAS UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ABSTRACT In order to access the prevalence and sensitivity pattern of urinary pathogens, 60 midstream urine samples from students of Caritas University were investigated using cultural methods. Samples were examined microscopically and... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of six Gram negative pathogenic bacteria; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Shigella and Enterococcus was evaluated. The test organisms were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility test using the Kirby Bauer method. A multi-disc containing eight (8) antibiotics; Ceftrazidime... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Urine Sample from pregnant women were analysed for bacteriuria. The result of irinalysis reveals the appearance –yellow and Cloudy, pH 6.0, protein-ve, Glucose-ve,Blood-ve, Urobilinogen. Normal, Ketone-ve, Nitrate tve, Bilirubin-ve,... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Urine Sample  from pregnant  women were analysed for bacteriuria. The result of irinalysis reveals the appearance –yellow and Cloudy, pH 6.0, protein-ve, Glucose-ve,Blood-ve, Urobilinogen. Normal, Ketone-ve, Nitrate tve, Bilirubin-ve, Ascobic acid –ve in some of the samples. The result  of urine microscopy reveal pus cells. ... Continue Reading
    CHAPTER ONE 1.0   INTRODUCTION Yoghurt is a fermented dairy product obtained from the lactic acid fermentation of milk. It is one of the most popular fermented milk products in the world and produced commercially at home. (Willey  et al.,  2008). In its commercial production, non fat or low fat milk is pasteurized cooled to 43°c and are... Continue Reading
    INTRODUCTION The primary function of intact skin is to control microbial population that live on the skin surface and to prevent underlying tissue from becoming colonized and invaded by potential pathogens (Ndip et. al.,  2007). Exposure of subcutaneous tissue following a loss of skin integrity (i.e. wound) provides a moist, warm and nutritious... Continue Reading
    Call Us
    Get this work
    whatsappWhatsApp Us