ANTIBIOGRAM TYPES OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM THE NOSTRILS OF HEALTHY STUDENTS IN EGUARE SECONDARY SCHOOL, EKPOMA, EDO STATE. NIGERIA.

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  • Department: Microbiology
  • Project ID: MCB0448
  • Access Fee: ₦5,000 ($14)
  • Pages: 88 Pages
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ABSTRACT



        40 nasal samples were collected from apparently
healthy males students at Eguare Secondary School, Ekpoma, whose ages fell
within the ranges of 15-20 years were  selected and screened for Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans using Mannitol Salt
Agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar respectively. A total of 15 (37.5%) samples
were positive of S. aureus while no growth was observed for Candida albicans . The disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer) on nutrient agar
was used to assess the sensitivity of isolated S. aureus. The antibiogram typing shows that strain 7777777 was
most sensitive to all the antibiotic used while the most resistant strain was
1173674. The isolates were all sensitive to, Gentamycin, Ciproxin, peflaxin,
Ofloxacin and Ceftriaxone all having a susceptibility rate of 100% while
Zinnacef (6.7%), and Ampicillin (33.3%) showed highest resistant rate.  This study has been able to demonstrate a resolving
power strain susceptibility as well as delineation and there is need for
frequent study of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in educational
institutions to minimize the rate of spread of respiratory tract and skin
infection, so as to maintain a healthy institution.

TABLE OF CONTENT



TITLE PAGE………………………………………………………………..i



ACKNOWLEDGMENT…………………………………………………... iii



DEDICATION…………………………………………………………….. iv



CERTIFICATION…………………………………………………………..v



TABLE OF CONTENT…………………………………………………..... vi



LIST OF TABLES………………………………………...………………. viii



ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………...ix



CHAPTER  ONE



1.0 Introduction and
literature review (Staphylococcus aureus)…………………1



1.0.1   
Historical
background………………………………………………..2



1.0.2   
Classification…………………………………………………………4



1.0.3   
Epidemiology and
Risk Factors………………………………………5



1.0.4   
Virulence
factors……………………………………………………...8



1.0.5   
Staphylococcal
infections…………………………………………....12



1.0.6   
Diagnosis…………………………………………………………….14



1.0.7   
Prevention and
control………………………………………………15



1.0.8   
Treatment and
management…………………………………………18



 



1.1           
Introduction and
Literature review (Candida albicans)………………….19



1.1.1   
Historical
overview…………………………………………………..20



1.1.2   
Classification………………………………………………………....22



1.1.3   
Epidemiology and
risk factors………………………………………..23



1.1.4   
Signs and
symptoms………………………………………………….24



1.1.5   
Diagnosis……………………………………………………………..26



1.1.6   
Prevention and
control……………………………………………….27



1.1.7   
Treatment and
management…………………………………………..28



 



1.2. ANTIMICROBIAL
THERAPY



1.2.0. Introduction……………………………………………………………29



1.2.1. History of Antibiotics…………………………………………………29



1.2.2. Classes of Antibiotics…………………………………………….........31



1.2.3. Penicillins……………………………………………………………...32  

1.2.4. Beta-lactamase Inhibitors……………………………………………...33



1.2.5. Aminoglycoside………………………………………………………..34



1.2.6. Chloramphenicol………………………………………………….........35                                  

   1.2.7.
Tetracycline…………………………………………………………….36



1.2.8. Septrin…………………………………………………………………..37



1.2.9. Macrolide………………………………………………………………..39



1.2.10. Quinolones……………………………………………………………..40



1.2.11. Cephalosporins…………………………………………………………42



 1.3.  AIMS
AND OBJECTIVES……………………………………………..............44



CHAPTER TWO



2.0  MaterialsandMethods



2.1. Material used………………………………………………………..............45



2.2. Media used………………………………………………………………….45



2.3. Sterilization of materials……………………………………………………46



2.4. Collection of samples………………………………………………………46



2.5. Culture method……………………………………………………………..47



2.6. Preparation of antibiotics susceptibility
disc……………………………….48



2.7. Antimicrobial susceptibility test……………………………………………49



2.8. Antibiogram typing…………………………………………………………51



CHAPTER THREE.



3.0. Results………………………………………………………………………52



CHAPTER FOUR.



4.0. Discussion………………………………………………………………….58



4.1. Conclusion and Recommendation………………………………………….60



 References ……………………………………………………………………..61



Appendix one…………………………………………………………………...73



Appendix two
…………………………………………………………………..76



Appendix three………………………………………………………………….79



 

 



LIST
OF TABLES AND FIGURES



 



Table 1. 
Criteria used for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus.



Table 2. 
Antibiogram types of  Staphylococcus aureus isolated from healthy male students in Eguare Secondary
School, Ekpoma.



Table 3. Group cumulative frequency susceptibility
rate of isolated Staphylococcus aureus to grouped antibiotics at different
rates.



Figure
1. frequency rate of antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated
from the nostrils in order of increasing rate.





 



  

ANTIBIOGRAM TYPES OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM THE NOSTRILS OF HEALTHY STUDENTS IN EGUARE SECONDARY SCHOOL, EKPOMA, EDO STATE. NIGERIA.
For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
or
+234 8093 423 853

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  • Type: Project
  • Department: Microbiology
  • Project ID: MCB0448
  • Access Fee: ₦5,000 ($14)
  • Pages: 88 Pages
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 300
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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Microbiology
    Project ID MCB0448
    Fee ₦5,000 ($14)
    No of Pages 88 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

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