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THE EFFECT OF AVOCADO SEED EXTRACT O SAMOLINA SPECIES

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:50
  • Methodology:Scientific
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Microbiology Project Topics & Materials)
THE EFFECT OF AVOCADO SEED EXTRACT O SAMOLINA SPECIES
  ABSTRACT

The seed Persea americana was extracted with four different solvents via chloroform,petroleum ether,ethylacetate and methanol and subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening which revealed alkaloids, steroids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenols. Persea americana has been found to contain most of the bioactive constituents. Persea americana could be a very good medicinal plant used in the treatment of malaria, cancer, cough, hypertension, inflammatory. They are used as antimicrobial substances against a wide array of microorganism. The medicinal values of plant depend on phytochemicals such as flavonoid, alkaloid, steroid, tannin, saponin, glycoside, phenol etc. from the the effect of avocado seed extract o samolina species . Methanol is the best solvent for the extraction of phytochemicals as observed from the experiment carried out in the physical laboratory.
                                     TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTORDUCTION
1.1  BACKGROUND OF STUDY                 
1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3   AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.4   METHOD OF RESEARCH…
1.5   SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY …
1.6  SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY………
          CHAPTER TWO                          
 2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1     CLASSES OF  PHYTOCHEMICAL
2.2     MECHANISMOFACTIONOFPHYTOCHEMICAL
2.3   EXTRACTION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL
2.3.1  SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION.
2.3.2.  SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION
2.4 IMPORTANT OF PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS
2.5 AVOCADO PEAR (PERSEA AMERICANA)
2.4    ECONOMIC IMPORTANT OF AVOCADO                         
CHAPTER THREE
3.0   MATHODOLOGY
3.1 MATERIAL
3.2 CHEMICAL REAGENT
3.3 METHOD
3.3.1PREPARATION OF MATERIAL
3.3.2 EXTRACTION
3.3.3PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING…
3.4 RESULT
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0   RESULTS  ANALYSIS   AND DISCUSSION
4.1 RESULTS  ANALYSIS …
4.2   DISCUSSION          …
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
 5.  1 CONCLUSION ……
5.2 RECOMMENDATION  ……
     REFERENCE ………
CHAPTER ONE
1.0    INTRODUCTION    
1.1    Background of the study
    According to Koller, (1992) avocados may have originated in southern Mexcco but were cultivated from the Rio Grande to central Peru long before the arrival of Europeans. They were then carried to West Indies and to nearly all parts of the tropical and subtropical regions with suitable environmental conditions.
    According to Raharjo `et al (2008), the Persea americana belongs to family  lauracease, genus persea and is a plant  native of central America and recognized healthy fruit cultivated in many  tropical and subtropical areas of the world with height of about 60-80 feet.  It has a   green to black knobby egg shaped with a lechery skin and a large seed of about 5-6cm. The leaves are evergreen and the flowers unisexual then the fruit falls into fleshy fruits.
    Avocado growth and development is intense, differing from other fruit species. After  harvest, the fruits completes maturation  with major changes in metabolism and  higher respiratory  rate  and thus high  production of ethylene, being  highly perishable  under  environmental  conditions leading to the  production  of high  amount of waste. In this sense,  the avocado pulp processing  can  contribute  to its best use, either  as a food  product or  for oil extraction (Rocha 2008)  in addition  to its natural perishability, several factors  such as mechanical damage,  compression and cut,  physiological,  chemical  and biochemical  changes are responsible to changes  in colour, aroma, teste and texture of the fruit (Sanches et al 2008) . After  industrial  fruit  processing,  avocado  seed material is generally disposed although it could be a potential source  for supplement  and for medicinal  products  it  is noteworthy  that ethnopharmacology  of the Aztect and Maya  cultures used  decocts of avocado seeds  as a potent agent to treat mycotic and  parasitic  infection (Johnson 2005).
    In addition to the important major compounds, avocado contains  substantial amount of bioactive  compounds  such as phytosterol, especially in the lipid  fraction phytosterol  is a substance of vegetable origin  whose  structure is very similar to cholesterol.  Its mechanism of action in the body involves the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption and decreased hepatic cholesterol synthesis. (melo 2011).
    The phytosterols in avocados has special effect on immunity, contributing to the treatment of diseases such as cancer, HIV, and infection. In relation to cancer, it works by suppressing carcinogenesis and in HIV by strengthening the immune system. This compound enhances lymphocytes proliferation and natural killer cell activity which in activates invading microorganisms (Bouce et al 2002).
1.2    Statement of problem               
    The need for phytochemical analysis is becoming more important because of alarming   incurable diseases.  Phytochemical analysis can be achieved by selecting avocado seed in absence of visible decay.  
    Drying in shade at room temperature for at least five days so as to bring down the initial moisture to enable its prolonged storage  life leads to consumption of time coupled with suitable area  required temperature (drying temperature)
1.3    Aim and Objectives of the Study
    The aim of this research work is the effect of avocado seed extract o samolina species .
The objectives of this work are
i.    Identifying  the phytochemcials in avocados seed
ii.    Identifying  the mechanism of action of phytochemicals in avocado  seed
iii.    Phytochemical screening at a lower rate.
iv.    Identifying the health benefit of avocado pear seed.
1.4    Method of Research
        The method of the researcher findings was purely practical backed up by theoretical evaluation with the use of the library,  articles, and internet.
 
1.5    Scope and Limitation of the Study
The phytochemicals analysis of avocado pear seed involves preparation of the material, extracting constituents with different solvent and phytochemical screening of the extract.
    This research requires phytochemical analysis of avocado pear seed, it does not give room to analyze other parts of avocado pear.
    Consequently, the time value within which the project work is to be carried out is very short and thereby adding to the numbers of constraints to be encountered
1.6    Significance of the study    
1.        To gain practical experience
2.    To determine phytochemicals which mechanism of action is very beneficial to human being .
3.        Developing our knowledge concerning the importance             and health benefit of avocado pear seed.  

THE EFFECT OF AVOCADO SEED EXTRACT O SAMOLINA SPECIES

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Details

Type Project
Department Microbiology
Project ID MCB0296
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 50 Pages
Methodology Scientific
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Microbiology
    Project ID MCB0296
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 50 Pages
    Methodology Scientific
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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