The performance of the oils selected in this work was tested for considering Viscosity, Viscosity Index, Density, Flash Point, Pour Point, and Carbon Residue. The most important of all the properties which makes the oil protect against wear is viscosity that helps to reduce friction between moving parts in the engine. The Viscosities of the oils; Oando SAE 20W50, Total SAE 20W50, Mobil 1 SAE 0W40, Total SAE 40, and AZ SAE 20W50 at 24.8°C (room temperature) and 100°C (maximum test temperature) are 290 cSt and 18 cSt, 290.5 cSt and 20 cSt, 286.4 cSt and 21.20 cSt, 295.2 cSt and 15.60 cSt, 296.8 cSt and 19.60 cSt respectively. This implies that the Mobil 1 is most preferred as it has the least change in viscosity with respect to change in temperature and Total SAE40, a monograde oil as the least preferred as it has highest change in viscosity with respect to change in temperature when high temperature is expected in the service environment. The pour points of the oils are -240C, -22 0C, -280C, -150C, and -220C respectively. Based on this, all the oils are suitable for use in internal combustion engine in Nigeria and Africa. However, in an environment where very low temperature is expected during winter, the Mobil 1 (synthetic Oil) is most preferred and the monograde Oil is not suitable as the flowability may not be good enough at engine start up. The flash point of the Oils is 175 0C, 160 0C, 160 0C, 102 0C, and 170 0C respectively. These Oils are suitable for use in internal combustion engine as all the flash points are above the expected temperatures (0C) during a normal working condition. The carbon residue found in the Oils was 0.95 %, 0.90 %, 0.60 %, 1.00 %, and 0.95 % respectively. The Synthetic Oil has the lowest carbon residue and the monagrade Oil has the highest carbon residue, and so the synthetic Oil is most preferred based on carbon residue result since high amount of carbon residue is a disadvantage. In all the results of laboratory test, all the Oils were seen to be suitable in internal combustion engine with the most preferred Oil as the synthetic followed by the multigrade and the least performing oil is the monograde. To carry out Pressure Mapping Experiment in this work, a pressure mapping equipment was developed. An Internal Combustion Engine, Thermocouple, Tachometer and Pressure Tube were obtained from the market and integrate together to function as desired based on the theoretical background of pressure mapping. The pressure mapping experiment is a fast method of measuring the performance of the lubricating Oil by mapping the pressure of the Oils in an internal combustion engine. This Oil pressure mapping is recommended for the evaluation of the performance properties of the Oils in our local market.
From time immemorial, liquids, including water, have been used as lubricants to reduce
friction and wear and remove heat between two surfaces in contact. At present, lubricating oil also called lube oil is the most commonly used lubricant because it has found a wide range of application in the field of engineering.
A lubricant, sometimes called lube, is a substance (often a liquid) which is introduced between two surfaces in contact moving relative to each order to keep them separate under all loads, temperatures and speed thus minimizing friction and wear. The substance may act as cooling fluid removing heat from the system and also protect surfaces from the attack of aggressive products formed during the operation. Lubricants may also perform the function of dissolving and transporting foreign particles (http://www.Weareoil
Majorly, there are solid and liquid lubricants. Air and other gas based lubricants are there, but for the purpose of this research work, consideration is limited to liquid lubricants. Examples of liquid lubricants are: mineral oils, vegetable oils and synthetic oils.
The most common liquid lubricants are the mineral oils. This is because of the supply of crude oil. The term mineral oil is used here to mean lubricating base oil derived from crude oil that is refined from naturally occurring petroleum. Since they are commonly used, important information about their properties is now available.
MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF SELECTED LOCALLY PRODUCED LUBRICANTS (ENGINE OIL)
ABSTRACT The performance of the oils selected in this work was tested for considering Viscosity, Viscosity Index, Density, Flash Point, Pour Point, and Carbon Residue. The most important of all the properties which makes the oil protect against wear is viscosity that helps to reduce friction between moving parts in the engine. The Viscosities of... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT The research evaluated the effect of soaking period on the functional properties of ogi produced from selected maize varieties (B2W, E1Y, N6W and R6Y). The maize varieties were steeped for 0, 12, 24 and 36 th hour respectively and processed into ogi making use of the traditional method and thereafter dried at 55 0 C. The ogi powder... Continue Reading
Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory properties of maize, soybean and tigernut based infant food that could be adoptable at house-hold level by rural dwellers. Randomized Study Design was adopted for the study: Soybean seeds were washed, soaked overnight, cooked, dehulled, dried and milled into flour to pass a... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT The evaluation of antimicrobial activities of five (5) brands of differentlocally produced soap sold in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo state was carried out against some selected pathogenic organisms (Staphylococcus aureus,Enterobacteraerogenes,Bacillus cereus,Shigelladysentaries,Salmonella typhin, Candida... Continue Reading
Nine samples of freshly prepared kunu was taken from local vendors and hawkers at Tanke area, Ilorin, Kara State and analyzed for microbial quality. The pH of the samples ranged from 2.66 to 4.06. The total bacterial count ranged from 1.5×104 to 7.4×104 cfu/ml; the total coliform count ranged from 1.0x102 to 8.0x103cfu/ml; the faecal coliform... Continue Reading
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study The disposal of spent engine oil (SEO) into gutters, water drains, open vacant plots and farms is a common practice in Nigeria especially by motor mechanics. This oil, also called spent lubricant or waste engine... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT Since early 1995 when pressure was mounted on the Raw Materials Research and development council in Nigeria, with a view to sourcing wire, flux and binder locally, little or no success has been recorded. As at 1998,allthe raw materials including core wire for electrode manufacture in Nigeria were still being imported. The aim of this... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT. The study dealt with the possibility of reducing dependence on food importation by replacing foreign products with locally sourced food products. Primary and secondary data were used to accomplish the objectives of the study. Primary data were collected using detail questionnaire . and focused group discussion and laboratory analysis. A... Continue Reading
CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study Biomass, particularly agricultural residues seem to be one of the most promising energy resources for developing countries (Patomsok, 2008). Rural households and minority of urban dwellers depend solely on fuel woods (charcoal, firewood and sawdust) as their primary sources of energy for the... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT Biomass, particularly agricultural residues seem to be one of the most promising energy resources for developing countries (Patomsok, 2008). Rural households and minority of urban dwellers depend solely on fuel woods (charcoal, firewood and sawdust) as their primary sources of energy for the past decades (Onuegbu, 2010). Of all the... Continue Reading