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DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A PRINTING /BLOCK MACHINE

  • Type: Project
  • Department: Mechanical Engineering
  • Project ID: MCE0041
  • Price: ₦3,000 ($20)
  • Chapters: 5 Chapters
  • Pages: 54 Pages
  • Methodology: scientific analysis
  • Reference: YES
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 1.8K

For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
or
+234 8093 423 853
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A PRINTING /BLOCK MACHINE
ABSTRACT

Parameters on which clear prints depends were comprehensively investigated.  The study revealed that clear print depends on the impressed pressure the working temperature and the gold foil print paper life expectancy.
Also studies were he manner of dependence of these parameters on prints impressed  on sheets of varied thickness.  The results of these investigation were  utizlied in the design and fabrication of an operational manual printing machine using gold foil   sheet depositor clear prints were impressed on papers during the new machine’s operation.
LIST OF FIGURES
Description
Figure 1 sketch of alternative A
Figure 2. Sketch of alternative B.
Figure 3 sketch of alternative C
Figure 4 isomeric view of hot plate square housing
Figure 5 isometric view of type holder
Figure 6 &7 load and free body diagram of crank are (Handle) and rod.
LIST OF SYMBOLS
A – Area
A – Acceleration
D – Maximum shaft diameter
d-      minimum  shaft diameter
e-        efficiency
k – Thermal conductivity
c – Heat capacity
x – The pressure transmissibility of lever system (press x  1/duration )
t – Time
l – Length of shaft
m – Mass
m – Maximum bearding moment
p - Electric power
q – Quantity of heat
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
1.1              introduction                                                                
1.2              literature review and data collection                           
1.3              experimental determination of pressure for prating                
1.4               design specification                                       
CHAPTER TWO
2.1              Design solutions                                                          
2.2              Alternative A press foot printer                                              
2.3              Alternative  B; crank arm  (handle )                           
2.4              Alternative  C; automatic (motorized) printer                        
2.5              Comparison of alternative and choice                                    
CHAPTER THREE
3.1              Design selection and analysis of parts of chosen alternative
3.2              Theory of  design/  design calculation                                    
3.3              The  design of the shaft (Hollow)                                           
CHAPTER FOUR                
4.1              construction of prototype                                                                   
4.2              general                                                                                     
4.3              material selection                                                                    
4.4              sequence of construction and assembly                                  
CHAPTER FIVE
5.1              Testing of prototype (test – run)                                             
5.2              Evaluation of machine efficiency                               
5.3              Operator’s manual                                                                   
5.4              Costing  (cost analysis)                                                           
5.5              Problems Encounter                                                    
5.6              Conclusion                                                                              
5.7              
Reference
Recommendation                                                                                
 CHAPTER ONE
 1.1       INTRODUCTION
            Nigeria in recent times lays strong emphasis on mass literacy  and indigenous technology.  Printed matters are indispensable materials in mass literacy campaign  and the trend towards indigenous technology imposes a  severe  clamp down on imputed engineering including printing block machinery.  Thus the situation is  such that make  the acquisition of printing machinery from outside our boards extremely difficult.
            Therefore to lessen the economic strain on  the mass literacy campaign local  production of  printing machinery is apparently imperative.  It is this fact that rendered integrative to the conception and realization of this low cost but efficient printing machine based entirely on local technology and resources.
            The present machine is very useful in the printing of many items like paper backs cards etc. its design and fabrication is expected to motivate and advance the design and fabrication of other machines destined for similar purpose and based on indigenous technology and resources.
1.2       LITERATURE REVIEW AND DATA COLLECTION
            There were no available books in printing in both the state and school libraries that actively dealt with printing technology. The only books available were those  on the  history of ‘Types’ and trade journals advertising products of foreign companies which were fund to be of little or no relevance.
            However a visit to the government printing press gave us an opportunity to study the ‘types’ available and the basic operations of  the giant printing  (Blocking) machine with respect to the ‘Types’ from there we  were able to establish;
(a)                The effect of temperature on the amount of gold deposited from sheet (sharpness of print )
(b)               The  effect of life time on the gold foil sheet depositor.
(c)                The effect of pressure on the amount  of gold  deposited from sheet  (sharpness of print )
(d)               The  effect of size of ‘types’ on the sharpness  of print  (amount of gold  deposited )
Definition:
Types : These are the characters or alphabets that forms the  letters.
Print :- This is  the mark or impression produced on paper due to the types. Gold foil  sheet depositor :- is a thin rectangular  cellophane sheet coated with gold compound.
1.3              EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF PRESSURE FOR PRINTING.
The print there must be impact force between two  surfaces on e of which contains the ‘type’ and the other the paper on which print will be made. The force produces the necessary pressure for printing.
         Consider alternative ‘B’ of the possible design solution.  Impact force  is due to the acceleration of mass of moveable plate and rail against the stationary letter box located on the element box.  The pressure for printing is  impact force for a  constant                                                                                                              surface area
Impact surface area the pressure varies with variation in the impact force.  Similarly the impact force varies with the mass and acceleration.  But  the  mass is constant and equal to mass of rail plus mass of moveable plate hence only the acceleration varies. Therefore in this experiment effort has been made to determine.
(a)          The  pressure required  to print clearly on thin cellophane sheet without perforating it.
(b)         The pressure required to  print clearly on paper of average thickness without perforating it
(c)          The  pressure required to print on cardboard sheet such that very sharp prints are obtained  by varying the input acceleration
Materials: very light cellophane paper, paper back of higher education exercise book ceiling sheet (card board)  silver sheets,
Apparatus: Election- speed printer machine
Definition: The electronic speed printer machine is a motorized electronic motor.  It  has a device for varying the acceleration the current input  can varied hence the heat generate and therefore the temperature varied.
Method: the acceleration is varied keeping the temperature and surface area of impact constant.  Already the striking mass is constant.  The following values show the accelerations at which sharpest prints were obtained without perforation of the materials after several trial.  The corresponding forces and pressure are also shown.
TABLE 1
Material    Accel. For sharpest print without perforation    Mass (m)    Force (ma)    Pressure (ma/a)
Cellophane paper    0.07mls 2    35kg    2.45N    2.45
0.0972 = 25.24 n/m2
Paper back of higher education note book     0.76 mls2    35kg    26.6N    26.6 =  273.N/M2
0.0972
 
 
Ceiling sheet
Cardboard     2.3 mls2    35kg    80.8n    80.8       = 831 N/m2
0.0.972
 
•operating temperature 1550c  (fixed)
•0.0972 = area of foolscap sheet (fixed)
for the heating coil, the heat dissipated given by H. = 12 Rt where 1  = current passing in ampere R = resistance of coil in ohms and t = duration time in seconds. It varies directly with  temperature which is the measurement of heat hence the determination of:
TABLE 11
EFFECT F TEMP. ON SHARPNESS OF PRINT
Temp
(0 c)    Cellophane paper     Paper back of higher Edu. Book    Ceiling sheet cardboard    Acceleration (m/s2)    Pressure (N/m2
25    No print    No print      No print    0.07    25.2
50    Slight deposit     No print     No print    0.07    25.2
155    Sharp print    No  print     No print     0.07    25.2
200              No  print     0.07     25.2
250    Shrinks    Non – clear print     No print slight deposit     0.07    25.2
25    Slight deposit     No print    No print    0.76    273
50    Clear print     Slight print    No print    0.76    273
155    Perforation      Sharp print    No print    0.76    273
200    Burns / shrins    Slight groove    Slight deposit          273
250    Increased burns     Deeper  grooves     Non- clear print    0.76    273
25    Fairly clear print     Slight deposit     Slight deposit    2.3    831.2
50    Perforation     Clear print    Non-clear print     2.3    831.2
 155    Burns/ shrinks    Sharp print with very deep groove    Sharp print    2.3    831.2
200    Increased burns     Perforation  begins    Grooving  begins    2.3    831.2
250    Increased burns     Deeper perforations    Deeper groove    2.3    831.2
 OBSERVATION:
From tables 1 and 11 it can be observed that
(a)                The sharpness of  print varies directly  with the acceleration and hence the operating pressure.
(b)               The sharpness of print varies directly with temp.
(c)                No matter how high the pressure applied at room temp.250c) a sharp print can never be obtained before and even after grooving and consequent perforation occurs.
(d)               By increasing acceleration and decreasing tem. Or vice- versa sharpness of prints can be altered provided the temp. Variation does not require a fall below 1550c.
CONCLUSION:
Sharpness of print depends on pressure and on temp (from about 1500c upwards).
(a)                EFFECT OF LIFE TIME ON GOLDEN FOIL DEPOSITION
Gold foil sheet as already defined is a very thin rectangular cellophane sheet coated with golden compound chemical such that temperature and pressure can be regulate its deposition on paper. Form the time of production (coating of gold on  cellophane) the coherency of gold deposit decreases with time until a times when the layers of the compound starts peeling off from the sheet by itself.  Hence sharpness of print depends on  life time of coating. This  fact was established after observing different life  golden sheets used under same temperature and pressure.
(b)        THE EFFECT OF SIZE OF TYPES ON THE SHARPNESS OF PRINT.
Since pressure = force / Area the same force applied ‘types’ having smaller surface area exerts greater pressure in direct proportion to the ratios of  their surface area.
1.4       DESIGN SPECIFICATION
            The printing (blocking) machine to be designed must be able to:
1.4.1        produce sharp print on paper from gold coated sheet
1.4.2        require small effort for operation
1.4.3        resist failure of excessive effort should be applied.
1.4.4        Be easily  operated by anybody
1.4.5        Produce as many per unit time as possible.
1.4.6        Must be relatively cheap in every respect
1.4.7        Should be compact and portable
1.4.8        Should nut be too heavy – can easily be  moved from one location to another
1.4.9        Position of operator  in use should be convenient not tiring
1.4.10      Should be durable
1.4.11     should  have replaceable parts – using bolts, screws and other forms of assembly rather than welding.  Also using components whose  forming / manufacturing process is less complex so the user can easily replace damaged parts.
1.4.12     Manufacture ability – can be manufactured  within the limits of  available materials and processes in the school workshop and neighboring establishments.
 
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A PRINTING /BLOCK MACHINE
For more Info, call us on
+234 8130 686 500
or
+234 8093 423 853

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  • Type: Project
  • Department: Mechanical Engineering
  • Project ID: MCE0041
  • Price: ₦3,000 ($20)
  • Chapters: 5 Chapters
  • Pages: 54 Pages
  • Methodology: scientific analysis
  • Reference: YES
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 1.8K
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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Mechanical Engineering
    Project ID MCE0041
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 54 Pages
    Methodology scientific analysis
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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