This chapter entails introduction to the study, statement of the problem, study questions, objectives of the study, justification of the study, significance of the study and the conceptual framework. The construction industry is formed of establishments primarily engaged in the building of structures or engineering projects like highways and utility systems; establishments primarily engaged in the preparation of sites for new construction and establishments primarily engaged in sub-dividing land for sale as building sites are also included in this sector. The history of OSH in Kenya dates back to 1950, with the introduction of the Factories Act. In 1990 this Act was amended to the Factories and Other Places of Work Act, to enlarge its scope. The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) and the Work Injury Benefits Act (WIBA) were enacted in 2007, and are now the principal laws that govern OSH in the country. There are other laws that touch on OSH, but they are managed by other government ministries and corporations (International Labour Organization, 2013). In Kenya, OSH is managed by the Directorate of Occupational Safety and Health Services (DOSHS). DOSHS is the designated national authority for collection and maintenance of a database, and for the analysis and investigation of occupational accidents and diseases, and dangerous occurrences. The Directorate’s policy and legal mandate are provided by the National Occupational Safety and Health Policy of 2012, OSHA 2007, and WIBA 2007 (International Labour Organization, 2013). The body responsible for reviewing national OSH legislation, policies and actions is the National Council for Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH), whose composition includes the Federation of Kenya Employers (FKE) and the Central Organization of Trade Unions (Kenya) (COTU-K) (International Labour Organization, 2013).