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COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE CYANIDE CONTENT OF VARIOUS CASSAVA FOOD PRODUCTS (GARRI, FUFU, WET ABACHA AND DRY ABACHA) SOLD IN IMT CAMPUS 3

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:56
  • Methodology:Scientific
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Food Technology Project Topics & Materials)
COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE CYANIDE CONTENT OF VARIOUS CASSAVA FOOD PRODUCTS (GARRI, FUFU, WET ABACHA AND DRY ABACHA) SOLD IN IMT CAMPUS 3
ABSTRACT

This study was aimed at investigating the comparative assessment of the cyanide content of various cassava food products (Garri, Fufu, Wet Abacha and Dry Abacha) sold in IMT campus 3. Samples of the cassava products were sourced from the food vendors in campus 3 and were taken to food chemistry laboratory and their cyanogenic content were determined using  the alkaline picrate method. From the result, it showed that wet Abacha recorded the highest cyanide content when compared to fufu with (6.83±12) mg/kg and (6.25±0.15)mg/kg respectively. Garri recorded the lowest cyanide content when compared to dry Abacha with (5.38±0.9) mg.kg and (5.94±0.81) mg/kg respectively. From the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) the sample superscripts are significantly different from each other the could have been as a result of the processing techniques from the food sellers.
However, all the cassava food products tested had cyanide below recommended level (10mg/kg), an indication of product palatability and suitability for consumption. Therefore, it is recommended that consumers should consume the cassava food products but not to the extent that will cause harm to the body.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the Study                           
1.2    Statement of the problem                          
1.3    Aims                                      
1.4    Objective of the Study                       
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1    Cassava: (Manihot esculenta): Origin                 
2.2    Economic Importance of Cassava              
2.3    Production Constraints                              
2.4    General Morphology and Composition of Cassava Root            
2.5    The Problems of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Cassava      
2.6    Cassava and Cyanogenic Glycosides in Relation to Human Health         
2.6.1    Health Benefits of Cassava                          
2.6.2    Toxins Associated with Cassava                  
2.6.2.1 Linamarin                                        
2.6.2.2 Litautralin                                    
2.6.3    Effects of Cyanogenic Glycosides on Human Health             
2.6.4    Factors Affecting the Cyanide Content of Cassava               
2.6.5    Effects of Cassava Processing on Cyanide Levels (Detoxification Methods)  
2.7    Processing of Cassava into Different Forms (Products)              
2.7.1    Garri                                           
2.7.1.1 Variations                                        
2.7.1.2 Consumption                                    
2.7.1.3 Health Implications                            
2.7.2    Fufu                                          
2.7.2.1 Preparations                                   
2.7.2.2 Nutritional Value                                       
2.7.2.3 Health Risk                                 
2.7.3    Abacha                               
CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.1    Materials                                  
3.1.1    Equipment and Glasswares                        
3.1.2    Reagent/Chemicals                             
3.2    Methods                                       
3.2.1    Collection of Sample                             
3.2.2    Sample Processing                                
3.2.3    Determination of the Cyanogenic Content                       
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULT AND CONCLUSION                                
4.1    Result                                     
4.2    Discussions                                        
 CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1    conclusion                                        
5.2    Recommendation                                        
REFERENCE                               
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 1.0 Structure of linamarin (world food science, 2018)      
Fig 2.0 Structure of Litautralin (world food science, 2018)          
LIST OF TABLE
Table I: proximate composition of cassava            
Table 2: nutritional values of the various Nutrients present in cassava per 100g
Table 4.1    Cyanide content of Fufu, Garri, Wet Abacha and Dry Abacha sample from campus 3 mg/kg                        
CHAPTER ONE
1.0    INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the Study
Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a root tuber produced in the tropical region of the world between latitude 300 North 300 south of the equator usually referred to as the cassava belt. In 1993, Nigeria was ranked the highest producer of cassava in the world (FAO, 2003). By 1993, Nigeria produced about 33million metric tonnes of cassava (FAO, 2003). This achievement has been attributed to improve high yielding. Pest and disease resistance cassava varieties produced and released to farmers (Ikwelle et al., 2003). Over 95% of cassava produced in Nigeria is used for humans for whom roots are the major source of dietary calories. Two major factors tend to limit the utilization of cassava in the form of the unprocessed tuber. The first is that the unprocessed tuber has relatively high amount of toxic prussic acid linamarin and litautralin. The second factor is that the fresh cassava tuber, unlike yam cannot be stored for more that a few days after harvesting. After harvest, a day or two days after harvesting, the roots began to deteriorate rapidly. They develop a bluish discolouration of the vascular bundles of the tuber, a symptom sometimes referred to as vascular streaking. In addition, the quality of starch in the tubers also deteriorate during storage. (Okaka and Okaka, 2007).
Cyanogens or cyanogenic glucosides are glycosides (compounds containing a sugar moiety linked to a non-gluten entity from which it can be separated by hydrolysis) whose result in the release of toxic hydrocyanic acids. Glucosides are not themselves harmful but when hydrolyzed by enzymes or other means released toxic hydrocyanic acid. Cassava contains the cyanogenic glycosides linamarin and litautralin. The linamarin can be  hydrolyzed by the enzyme linamarase to release toxic hydrocyanic acid or free hydrogen cyanide. Linamarin being present in the quantity up to 90% total. (Cereda and Mattos 1996). Cyanide toxicity can equally lead to disease such as lebers optical atrophy, endermic goiter and cretinism, tropic calcifying pancreatitis and in some cases instant death. Cyanide is exceeding toxic to man and domestic animals if consumed in amount in excess of 25-30ppm (Cereda and Mattos, 1996).
Cassava roots must therefore be detoxified and the liberated cyanide subsequently eliminated before consumption. The hydrogen-cyanide can readily be volatilized by heat or leached by soaking and washing. The characteristics of hydro-cyanic acid forms the basis for the current method recommended for detoxification of cassava in cassava based foods such as garri, fufu and abacha (Okaka and Okaka, 2001).
1.2    Statement of the Problem
Cassava roots contain toxic substances such as bound cyanide (cyanogenic glycoside) and free cyanide (hydrogen cyanide) which are released upon disintegration of the root. In the process of garri, fufu, wet abacha and dry abacha production, the cyanide content of cassava should be considerably eliminated. Since the consumption of these cassava food products is high and majority of consumers are ignorant of the poisonous or toxic substance contained in cassava tuber (cyanogenic glycoside), processors should be educated in the importance of the proper processing of these cassava food products (fufu, garri and abacha). If however, cyanide is left in the final product and this could be dangerous to the health of the consumers.
1.3    Aims  
This work is aimed at assessing the cyanide contents of different cassava product (Fufu, Garri, Dry Abacha and Wet Abacha) sold in IMT compus III.
1.4    Objective of the Study
The objectives of these work are to:
   Collect samples of cassava based foods (Fufu, garri, wet abacha and dry abacha) from food sellers and process them for cyanide analysis.
    Evaluate the cyanide content of different cassava based product (Fufu, garri, wet abacha and dry abacha) obtained from food vendors in campus 3
 Compare the cyanide content of these different cassava food products (Fufu, garri, wet abacha and dry abacha) sold on IMP campus 3.
COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE CYANIDE CONTENT OF VARIOUS CASSAVA FOOD PRODUCTS (GARRI, FUFU, WET ABACHA AND DRY ABACHA) SOLD IN IMT CAMPUS 3

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Details

Type Project
Department Food Technology
Project ID FTE0154
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 56 Pages
Methodology Scientific
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Food Technology
    Project ID FTE0154
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 56 Pages
    Methodology Scientific
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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