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Project Topic: EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PACKAGING MATERIALS ON THE QUALITY OF AFRICAN OIL BEAN SEED (PENTACLETHRA MACROPHYLLA BENTH)

  • Type: Project
  • Department: Food Technology
  • Project ID: FTE0153
  • Price: ₦3,000 ($20)
  • Chapters: 5 Chapters
  • Pages: 59 Pages
  • Methodology: Scientific
  • Reference: YES
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 249

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EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PACKAGING MATERIALS ON THE QUALITY OF AFRICAN OIL BEAN SEED  (PENTACLETHRA MACROPHYLLA BENTH)
ABSTRACT

Effect of packaging materials for the preservation of the ‘Ugba’ as studied and evaluated. Raw African oil bean seed was processed to ‘ugba’ by fermentation for 72hours.  Wrapped in plant in leaf (musaparadisiaca). Proximate analysis was carried out on the freshly produced ugba which has undergone fermentation for 72hr.  The fermentation ‘ugba’ was then dried for 72hrs and packaged using 3 different packaging materials. (Leaf, plastic and tin) and stored for 14days respectively.  On the 7day, and 14days of storage, proximate analysis, microbial (TV and Mould) and sensory evaluation of the stored ugba was carried out. The statistical analysis was determined using 2x2 factories experiment in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) least significant different at P<0.05.  The composition of the ‘ugba; after the 2 weeks of storage ranged from (10.84%-34.32%, 5.94%-34-32% and 6.98%-34.32%) for DUPL, DUPP and DUPT respectively. Protein ranged from (16.45%-17.32%, 16.45%-18.10%, and 16.45%-17.86%); fibre ranged from (14.11%-14.59%, 14/59%-16.62%and 14.59%-15.88%); fat ranged from (10.00%-13.06%, 12.86%-13.64% and 12.30% -13.86%); ash content ranged from (1.48%-6.12%,1.94%-6.12% and 2.34%-6.12%), and CHO ranged from (6.03%-19.60%,6.03% and 2.34%-6.12%), and CHO ranged from (6.03%-19.60%, 6.03% and 217.86% and 6.03% -16.66%) for DUPL, DUPP and DUPT respectively.  There were significant differences (P<0.05) among all the sample in protein, CHO, fat, fibre, moisture and Ash).  DUPT (dried ugba packaged in tin) has the highest effect in all the stored sample then followed by that of  DUPP (dried ugba packaged in plastic) and the least was DUPL (dried ugba packaged in leaf).  Microbial analyses was carried out after the day 14 of the storage and ranged from (3.6 x 105 -5x5 x 109 (cfu/g) for DUPL, DUPP and DUPT respectively.  The analysis carried out showed that ugba can be preserved by drying and packaged using tin as the major packaging material.
Keyword: Effect, ugba, packaging, quality,ugba.
    TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the Study                              
1.2    Statement of the problem                       
1.3    Justification                                         
1.4    Objective of the Study                         
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1    Importance and Description of the African oil Bean Tree              
2.2    Economic Importance Of ‘Ugba’                          
2.3    Preparation Of ‘Ugba’                           
2.4    Chemical Composition Of The Seeds                     
2.5    Nutritional Value Of The African Oil Bean Seed         
2.6    Anti-Nutritional Factors Of The Fermented And Unfermented African Oil Bean Seed (Ugba).                           
2.7    Medicinal Benefits of the African Oil Bean Seeds                  
2.8    Packaging                                          
2.8.1    Origin Of Packaging                                  
2.8.2    Leaf                                        
2.8.3    Nylon                                             
2.6.4    Plastic                                       
2.9    Ugba Fermentation                               
2.10    Micro-Organisms Involved During Fermentation              
CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.1    Materials                                     
3.2    Equipment                                          
3.3    Source Of Materials                                 
3.4    Production Of Fermented African Oil Bean Seeds (Ugba)           
3.5    Proximate Analysis                         
3.5.1    Moisture Content Determination.                  
3.5.2    Ash Content Determination                               
3.5.3    Fat Content Determination                         
3.5.4    Crude Protein Determination                           
3.5.5    Crude Fibre Content Determination                 
3.5.6    Determination Of Carbohydrate                          
3.6    Microbiological Analysis                        
3.6.1    Total Viable Count                                 
3.6.2    Mould Count                                 
3.7    Sensory Evaluation                       
3.8    Data Analysis                             
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULT AND CONCLUSION                                
4.1    Result                                      
4.2    Discussions                                  
 CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1    Conclusion                                      
5.2    Recommendation                                   
REFERENCE     
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 2: Flow Chart Diagram Showing The Production Of ‘Ugba’ (Fermented) Pentaclethra Macrophylla Benth Seeds)                    
LIST OF TABLE
Table 1: Uses of Pentaclethra Macrophylla Benth                  
Table 1: Uses of Pentaclethra Macrophylla Benth                      
Table 3: Fatty Acid Composition of African Oil Bean Seed           
Table 4: Mineral and Vitamin Content of Unfermented and Fermented Ugba      
Table 5: The Medicinal uses of AFRICAN Oil BEAN Seeds Plants (Pentacle Macrophylla Benth)                          
Table 4.2 Result of the proximate composition of Protein content of Day 0-14 Days                                    
4.1.1    Result on the proximate composition of the freshly produced ‘Ugba’ for 72hours (FPU)                   
Table 4.3 Result of the proximate composition of moisture content of Day 0-14 Days                                       
Table 4.2 Result of the proximate composition of Fibre content of Day 0-14 days                                             
Table 4.7 Results on the proximate analysis of carbohydrate content of DUPL, DUPP and DUPT                                  
Table 4.9 results of the Sensory Evaluation of Different Packaging Materials use for the African Oil Bean Seed                        
4.1.8 Result of the microbial load of the  dried ugba packaged with different Materials                               
4.1.6 Result on the proximate composition of Ash content of DUPL, DUPP and DUPT                                             
CHAPTER ONE
1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Ugba is the Igbo name for sliced fermented African oil bean seed (pentalethra Macrophylla benth). The African oil bean seed called several names in Nigeria, such as ‘Apara’ by Yoruba, ‘Ugba’ or ‘Ukpaka’ by the Igbos (Enujiugha and Akanbi, 2005). It is consumed mostly in the eastern states of Nigeria as a local delicacy popularly known as ‘African salad’ prepared with oil, pepper, fish, salt and its also prepared tapioca, stock-fish and garden eggs. It can be eaten with boiled or roasted yam and cocoyam (Okafor et al., 1991; Mbajunwed et al., 1998). Ugba is a traditional food generally prepared in homes in a small family business. Its method of preparation varies from house or one place to another resulting in non-uniform product (Njoku and Okemadu, 1999). ‘Ugba’ is produced traditionally by boiling the seeds over night for easy removal of the seed coat. The cotyledon are sliced and cooked until they are soft with reduced bitter taste. The sliced ‘Ugba’ is washed about 5 times or more and fermented for 3days (Eunjiugha, 2003)
According to Enujiugha, (2003), the cooked, processed and fermented seed ‘Ugba is used to prepare some delicious African soup and sausage for eating different staples. Enujiugha (2003) also noted that it is a rich demand for local and export consumption. Previous research showed that fermentation gives a bitter nutritional product that the raw seed (Achinewhu, 1986; Enujiugha and Olagundoye, 2001). Fermentation of African oil bean seeds to produce ‘Ugba’ softens the cotyledon, improves it digestibility and nutrients availability (Enujiugha and Akambi, 2002). Obeta (1983) showed that ‘Ugba is cheap and important source of protein especially for people whose staple food are deficient of protein in developing countries of the world. The consumption of ‘Ugba’ could pose as a means of addressing the preventing protein energy malnutrition (PEM) in developing countries (Enujiugha and Akanbi, 2008). It is cheap and available source of plant protein in developing countries of the world. Its protein contains 20 amino acids and 80% of its fatty acid are also essential (Enujiugha and Agbede, 2000, Kediobi, 1981). Ugba is a low acid food and product of alkaline fermentation (Enujiugha and Akanbi, 2005).
In many eastern communities in Nigeria, Ugba is consumed as a meat analogue due to its high protein content, the locally prepared Ugba is done through a mixed wild bacteria fermentation of the sliced, boiled and soaked African oil bean seeds (Enujiugha and Akanbi, 2005, Onwuliri et al, 20 04). Thermal treatment of the seeds increases the nutrient bioavailability and the digestibility drastically reduces iron, calcium, potassium, thiamine and riboflavin levels (Enujiugha and Ayodele-oni 2003). The source of micro-organism in fermenting seeds comes from handling, processing, utensils, used in processing and packaging materials (Obeta, 1983, Odunfa and Oyeyiol, 1985).
1.1.2 PACKAGING
Packaging is an important part of all food processing operations and with some example canning, it is integral to its protective role as in ‘packaging is a means of achieving safe delivery of products in some condition to final user at a minimum cost or it can be defined in business terms as a techno-economic function for optimising the cost of delivering goods whilst maximising sales and profits.
Functions of packaging are:
  containment: to hold the contents and keep them secure until the y are used
   Protection: against mechanical and environmental hazards encountered during distribution and use
 Communication: to identify the contents and assist in selling the products.
 Machinability: to have good performance on production lines for high speed filling, closing and collecting (1000 packs per min or more), without too many stoppages.
    Convenience: throughout the production, storage and distribution system including easy opening, dispersing and/or after use retail containers for consumers (Paine 1991)
1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The growing profile of ‘Ugba’ African oil bean seed has made it an important snack food among the low and middle income earners. The increased acceptance and consumption of ‘Ugba’ has led to its high demand. However, due to its long fermentation time of about 3-4days (72-94hours) for an unreasonable quantity  and its short shelf-life, ‘Ugba’ (African oil bean seed ) processors have encountered daunting tasks in keeping up to the demand and maximizing gain as a result of loss of quality to its continued fermentation, even day after the desired texture has been attained.
The lack of uniformly in texture of fermented Ugba is also a major worry. Nevertheless, good packaging and storage techniques that can impact improvement in keeping quality and digestibility are very essential in ensuring the elongation of its shelf-life and maintaining it quality.
1.3    JUSTIFICATION
There is high demand for African oil bean seed as a result of its high nutritional content. It serves as a source of protein especially for people whose staple food is deficient. The major problem or challenges is Ugba production is the keeping quality ‘Ugba’ does not stay for a long time considering the fact that it is been wrapped with leaf traditionally as this poses to deterioration faster.
1.4    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of packaging materials on the keeping quality of ‘Ugba’
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PACKAGING MATERIALS ON THE QUALITY OF AFRICAN OIL BEAN SEED (PENTACLETHRA MACROPHYLLA BENTH)
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  • Type: Project
  • Department: Food Technology
  • Project ID: FTE0153
  • Price: ₦3,000 ($20)
  • Chapters: 5 Chapters
  • Pages: 59 Pages
  • Methodology: Scientific
  • Reference: YES
  • Format: Microsoft Word
  • Views: 249
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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Food Technology
    Project ID FTE0153
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 59 Pages
    Methodology Scientific
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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