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EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF SMOKE POINT, FLASH POINT, AND FIRE PINT OF GROUNDNUT OIL (UNREFINED)

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:57
  • Methodology:Scientific
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Food Technology Project Topics & Materials)
EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF SMOKE POINT, FLASH POINT, AND FIRE PINT OF GROUNDNUT OIL (UNREFINED)
ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to extract oil from groundnut using small kitchen utensil (traditional method) and determine the temperature at which an unrefined oil smoke flash light (discontinuous, combustion) and fire point (continuous combustion) and compared with the results published online.  To achieve this, fresh groundnut was purchased from the market and processed to obtained roasted groundnut, the roasted peanut was milled into paste with addition small amount of warm water and pressed to extract the oil, the smoke point flash point and fire point of the extracted oil was determined and noted to be at 1700c, 3190c and 3650c and that of refined oil was determined to be at 2200c, 3390c and 3560c.
 TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION                                  
1.1    Background of the study                    
1.2    Statement of problem                        
1.3    Justification                               
1.4    Significance of the study                  
1.5    Aims and Objective                         
CHAPTER TWO
LITERTAURE REVIEW
2.1    Brief History and Origin Of Groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea)  
2.2    Botany                                 
2.3    Varieties                                         
2.4    Agronomic Requirements                
2.5    Cultural Practices                 
2.6    Uses of Groundnut                             
2.7    Groundnut Production                        
2.8    Nutritional Composition of Groundnut                 
2.9    Groundnut oil                              
2.10    Thermal decomposition of Oil                   
2.11    Effect of smoke, flash, and fire points on cooking oil            
CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1    Materials                                    
3.2    Equipment / Apparatus                             
3.3    Preparation / Roasting Of Groundnut               
3.4     Extraction                       
3.5     Determination of Thermal Decomposition Point of Groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea) Oil                        
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                      
4.1    Results                                 
4.3    Discussion                         
CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1    Conclusion                           
5.2    Recommendations                    
REFERENCES
LIST OF TABLES
4.1.1     Result of Smoke Point, Flash Point, and Fire Point of Unrefined Groundnut Oil  
4.1.2     Result of Smoke Point, Flash Point, and Fire Point of Refined Groundnut Oil           
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. 3.1     Flow chart for Roasted Groundnut                  
Fig 3.2    Flow Chart for oil Extraction                       
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.6    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.1.1    Oil Extraction
Oil extraction is defined as the process of separating triglyceride (TAG) lipids from the harvested and concentrated algal biomass and it could be done through a variety of mechanical or chemical manipulation techniques (Baskar, 2019).
According to Britanica. Com oil extraction isolation of oil from animal by-products, fleshy fruits such as a as the olive and palm, and oil seeds such as a cottonseed, sesame seed, soybeans and peanuts.  Oil is extracted by three general methods; rendering used, with animal products and oleaginous fruits mechanical pressing, for oil-bearing seeds and nuts, and extracting with volatile solvents, employed in large scale operation for a more complete extraction than is possible with pressing.
1.1.2    Groundnut
Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) belongs to the pea and bean family and it is a legume. But it is considered as nut because of its high nutritional value. That is how it is used in family meals and snacks.
Groundnut according to earthen light.com is the only nut that grows below the earth. The groundnut plant is a variable annual herb, which grows up to 50cm in height. The flowers of the plant develop a stalk which enters into the soil, when the leaves of the plant turn yellow, the plant is then removed from the earth and allowed to dry. After three to six weeks (3 – 6 weeks) they are separated from the plant.
According fruitas-hortalizas.com, “Arachis hypogaea” is a very appreciated and popular dry fruit. It is sold with shell or peeled, salted and often roasted.
Fruitas –hortalizas further stress that groundnut is an ingredient for some confectionary products and we make peanut butter with them.
Groundnut “Arachis hypogaes” is also known as peanut, monkey nut, ground pea and earthnut. It is a very popular dry fruit.
Nutritionally according to “fruitas-hortalizas”, groundnuts are very healthy. They contain oleic acid, beneficial to prevent the cardiovascular disease and cancer. They are an important source of minerals like potassium and phosphorus necessary for muscular and nervous activity.
The crops according to (CBI, 2016), groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea) are legume, root crops. They are native to South-America but are cultivated in many tropical and sub-tropical part of the world. In Europe, groundnut are consumed are snacks, crush for oil and processed by the food industry. A small share is also destined to pet and bird food market.
According to (CBI, 2016), varieties differ from producing region to another. For example, the varieties available in India Bold Java and Spanish. In Argentina, runner account for 90% of the peanut crops. There are also varieties like Pampo, Jumbo, Manigan and Virginia. In United there are existing varieties are virginia, runner and velencia.
Runners are the most common variety used in snack, peanut butter, groundnut oil, confectionaries and other food products.      
According to CBI, European market for groundnut has grown over the last few years which is substantiated by the growth in Import. European import for groundnut have grown since 2011.
In 2015, Europe imported 804,000 tones (€1.1billion) of groundnut making annual increase of +1.2% in volume and +4.3% in value since 2011.  Netherland is the largest importer; others are Germany, United Kingdom, Spain, Poland and Italy.
From Eurostat 2016 published by CBI, the main supplier of groundnut to Europe, and thus main competitors are; Argentina, China, Brazil, followed in the group is the United States of America and smaller exporters to European market are: Nicaragua with 3.2% and Egypt with 1.7%.
1.1.3    Groundnut Oil
    Peanut oil also known as groundnut oil or arachide/arachis oil according to Wikipedia 2019 is a mild tasty vegetable oil derived from peanut. The oil is available with a strong peanut flavor and aroma, analogous to Sesame oil. It is even used in American Chinese, South Asian and South East cuisine both for cooking and in the case of roasted oil, for added flavor (Liu et al, 2011 and USA GrownPeanutsource Peanutoil, 2012).
    Johnbaron.org stated that unrefined peanut oil has a smoke point of 3200F/ 1600C and it is used as flavorant for dishes akin to sesame oil. Thespruce.com said that refined peanut oil has a smoke point of 4000F/ 2320C is commonly for frying volume batches food like French fries.
    The major component of fatty acids according to USDA.NNDSR 2011are oleic acid (46.8% as olein), linoleic acid (33.4% as linolein), and palmitic acid (10.0%) as palmitin). It also contains some stearic acid, Arachidic acid, benenic acid, ligoceric acid and other fatty acid Anyasor et al, 2009).
1.1.4    Thermal Decomposition Points of Groundnut Oil
When fats/ oil heated, they decompose into three thermal stages.  These are smoke, flash, and fire points. One of the well-known components of the thermal decomposition of fats is acrolein, which is formed by the dehydration of the glycerol.
        (3H5-C0H)3  CH3 = CHCH0 = 2H20
These three thermal points vary so much with condition of the fat, they are not among the fat constraints.   However, they should be determined for a fat that is purchased for use in frying because of the fire hazard.  (Onimawo and Akubor, 2012).
The three thermal decomposition points (Smoke, flash, and fire points) of a fatty material according to institute of shortening and edible oil Washington D. C. 2004 are standard measures of its thermal stability  when heated in contact with air.
The smoke point, flash point and fire point of a fatty material according to Institute of Shortening and edible oil, Washington D.C. 2004 are standard measures of its thermal stability when heated in contact with air.
1.1.4.1    Smoke Point     
The “Smoke Point” is the temperature at which smoke is first detected in a laboratory apparatus protected from drafts and provided with special illumination. (Institute of Shortening, 2004). The temperature at which the fat smokes freely is usually somewhat higher. D.A. Morgan said that the Smoke Point is that temperature at which appreciate decomposition begins. When a body of the oil is heated in contact with atmosphere and also the point which volatile decomposition products are evolved in sufficient quantity for them to become visible.
1.1.4.2     Flash Point
Morgan quoted by AOCS (2019) said that flash point is that temperature at which the decomposition products are evolved in such quantity as to be capable of ignition but not of continued combustion.
Flash point is a temperature at which a volatile product are evolved at such rate that they are capable of being ignited but not capable of supporting combustion (Institute of Shortening, 2015).
1.1.4.3  Fire Point
    This point is defined as a temperature at which volatile products will support continued combustion. Morgan in his work in 1942 quoted by AOCS (2019) explained this point to the temperature at which the composition products are evolved. Such quantity and at which a rate that they will support continued combustion (Institute of Shortening, 2016).
1.7    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
This research work is carried out to confirm other information written online about the smoke point, flash point, fire point of groundnut/peanut (Arachis hypogaea) oil.  
1.8     JUSTIFICATION
The research work is embarked to confirm smoke point, flash point, and fire point of Arachis hypogeae oil (unrefined) extracted using traditional method.
Further research are expected to be carried out on the refined and on the oil extracted with other method of extraction of oil.   
1.9    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
More importantly, this study will expand my knowledge and that of food processors as well as the general public on the value chain of groundnut oil as an edible oil.
This study will be of great importance to:
1.    Food scientists: It will help them to know the temperature at which this reaction take places during food processing.
2.    Help us avoid the destruction of some heat liable nutrient in the oil during food processing even in our different locality
3.    Help in food industry to reduce costs of oil extraction.
4.    Know the effect of the above reaction on food finished products.
1.10    AIMS AND OBJECTIVE
1.    To extract oil from groundnut (arachis hypogeae)using traditional method.
2.    To determine the smoke point, flash point and fire point of oil extracts from groundnut (arachis hypogeae) using traditional method.  


EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF SMOKE POINT, FLASH POINT, AND FIRE PINT OF GROUNDNUT OIL (UNREFINED)

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Details

Type Project
Department Food Technology
Project ID FTE0150
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 57 Pages
Methodology Scientific
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Food Technology
    Project ID FTE0150
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 57 Pages
    Methodology Scientific
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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