Long term evolution (LTE) Network is often faced with the challenge of meeting up with the quality of service (QoS) requirement of the different services supported in the Network. Maintaining a trade-off between system throughput and fairness among users when making radio resources scheduling decisions is a very sensitive issue. Several algorithms have been proposed to this effect by different researchers in an attempt to manage the limited radio resources. One of well-known packet schedulers known as M-LWDF algorithm is known to support both real time and non-real time services. This algorithm has been found not to support real time services at a sufficient level. This is due to the fact that head of line (HOL) delay and packet delay not sufficient to balance the scheduling decision to real time services thereby degrading its performance. This research work was an attempt to improve the performance of MLWDF by incorporating bandwidth of flow,, which is directly proportional to flow weight and reserved rate .This approach used the uncertainty principle of fuzzy logic to calculate new weight for the different flows, by considering two input parameters from the network which are latency requirement for real time traffic and throughput for non-real time traffic .The performance of this algorithm was compared with PF,M-LWDF and EXP/PF schemes using system throughput, packet loss rate, delay and fairness as a performance indices in an LTE simulator. Results showed that when I-MLWDF was used, the aggregate throughput for video and VOIP increases considerably by 9.8% and 0.1% respectively when the cell was loaded by 60 users and the throughput for non- real time flow showed degraded performance of about 90%as against MLWDF. The improved scheme showed that the packet loss rate for video flow decreases by about 35.71% and 75% when compared with EXP/PF and MLWDF respectively. The acceptable packet loss rate for VOIP flow is under 3% for both algorithm and the improved scheme showing better result by about 20%compared to MLWDF. The packet loss rate for non-real time flow for I-MLWDF showed a poor performance of about 95% as against MLWDF.The delay for video, VOIP for the improved scheme is under 0.05s and 0.007s respectively as against MLWDF with delays under 0.07s and 0.02s for video and VOIP respectively, when the cell was loaded with 60 users. Also the delay for I-MLWDF showed higher delay of 98% as compared to MLWDF. Fairness index for video flow for I-MLWDF is 20% better than MLWDF. Both algorithms showed performance level between 98.5% and 99.5% for fairness index for VOIP flow with I-MLWDF showing improved performance of about 0.2% increase better than M-LWDF. However, the highest fairness index was presented by MLWDF and PF that reach a level above 99% whereas I-MLWDF showed the worst result that reach a level of about 93%.
1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Cellular communication was designed to ameliorate the flaws of traditional wireless and wired communication networks providing communication between moving units and/or stationary units and vice versa. The moving units are referred to as mobile stations while the stationary units are referred to as land fixed units. Some of the flaws encountered in traditional wireless communication networks range from their inability to cope with the travelling speed of fast mobile units; to its low capacity and poor data rate.
Cellular communication divides its coverage region into small regions called cells; hence, the terminology “cellular”. This concept of cellular co mmunication began to appear in Bell System proposals during the late 1970s [1, 2]. Cell size is dynamic and is dependent on the population (traffic) in the region to be covered. However, it is set by the transmitter power and the frequency of operation of the cell. To manage scarce frequency resources and meet the requirement of users, cells apply techniques like frequency hopping, frequency re-use and cell splitting .
IMPROVED SCHEDULER FOR LONG TERM EVOLUTION (LTE) DOWNLINK TRANSMISSION
ABSTRACT Long term evolution (LTE) Network is often faced with the challenge of meeting up with the quality of service (QoS) requirement of the different services supported in the Network. Maintaining a trade-off between system throughput and fairness among users when making radio resources scheduling decisions is a very sensitive issue. Several... Continue Reading
DETERMINANTS OF LONG TERM INVESTMENT OF QUOTED COMPANIES IN NIGERIA ABSTRACT The study empirically examines the main determinants of firms’ long-term investment in Nigeria. In order to study this relationship, two firm’s specific variables (assets and profitability) and two macroeconomic variables (RGDP and interest rate) were selected as... Continue Reading
(A STUDY OF EMENITE NIGERIA LIMITED) ABSTRACT This research work, examined the Effect of Feasibility Study on Long-Term Performance of Nigeria Organizations, a study of Emenite Nigeria Limited. The objectives of the study include to: find out how feasibility study can... Continue Reading
INTERMEDIATE AND LONG TERM FINANCING IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF CAPITAL MARKET) TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Background of the study 1.2 Statement of the problem 1.3 Scope of the study 1.4 The research objectives 1.5 Research hypothesis 1.6 Significant of the study 1.7 Definition of terms CHAPTER TWO Literature review 2.1... Continue Reading
INTRODUCTION A country must invest to build up productive capacity for growth to occur. It is this capacity that determines the level of output of goods and services in the economy. If investment which represents the net increase in an economy’s’ capital stock, leads to growth then there is relationship between capital accumulation and... Continue Reading
The six year insurgency across the North-Eastern part of the country has triggered serious security instability and escalated the food security situation in the Northeast. With the return of relative peace in many communities in Borno state, the returnee IDPS are confronted by challenge of livelihood considering the fact that they are... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT The problem of Electricity are enormous and can never be treated completely until the fault department (maintenance) are improved upon for urgent and rapid response to line faults. The present protection scheme only isolates the lines in the event of faults, define the fault, but leaves no proper information about the location of the... Continue Reading
DESIGN AN IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZ ED PRODUCTION SCHEDULER SYSTEM (A Case Sudy Of Okin Biscuit Offa, Kwara State) CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction Scheduling is a representation of the time necessary carry out a task and should take account of the technical requirement of the task, marketing forecast and available capacity. Scheduling is a... Continue Reading
CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY A political party is an association of people who hold similar views about what should be a community or society’s social and economic priorities and come together to establish these priorities by gaining control of the machinery of government (Derbyshire & Darlyshire, 1991:13a). Modern... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT A close look at the Nigeria insurance market indicate that the sale and purchase of term, assurance policy is declining. And this decline was assumed an unpro-portinate dimension since the Nigerian’s independence in 1969, hence it calls for urgent attention. This research therefore is intended to provide empirically both the... Continue Reading