1.0 Introduction This Chapter presents the background, problem statement, purpose specific objectives, research questions, hypotheses scope and the significance of the study. 1.1 Background Pupil school participation as seen in attendance, academic performance and class participation is related to their psychological and physical state which in turn could be influenced by family relations including domestic violence. Domestic violence is almost always accompanied by psychological abuse and in many cases by forced sex as well. Although the family is a place where people are expected to maintain intimacy and experience greater emotional support in their relationships, domestic violence presents itself as a paradox. It is ironical that this very supportive social unit is also the arena where intimate partner violence (IPV) is more often experienced. Children from rural (slum) areas, who witness violence between their parents on top of other social challenges, are exposed to the aftermath of domestic violence such as anxiety, depression, poor academic performance, low self esteem, disobedience, nightmares and physical health deterioration all of which may negatively impinge on their academic performance and school participation. The extent and magnitude of domestic violence cannot be precisely measured because there are many cases whereby victims fail to report thus making this vice an inter-personal and family secret. Violence between spouses or IPV usually has far reaching consequences on children. Besides the scenes of violence traumatic, the children may suffer short term as well as long term emotional imbalances, which not only affect their behavior and performance in schools, but also may adversely affect their social and interpersonal relationships. These children may then end up being abusers themselves in what can be seen as continuity hypothesis. Children who witness violence between their parents often develop many of the same behavioral and psychological problems as children who are themselves abused (Tony, 2002). Most researches have examined the direct impact of violence on its victims; with little attention directed to the effect that physical and /or sexual victimization of women and girls may eventually have on their offspring.